Shell and pearl are highly ordered biominerals formed by calcium carbonate under the control of organic matrix, composed of shell matrix proteins, sugars and lipids. Shell matrix proteins play significant roles in the formation of shells and pearls. It is very important to study the matrix proteins of Hyriopsis cumingii for revealing the formation mechanism of pearls and cultivating high quality pearls.In this paper, 26 matrix proteins related to the formation of the cuticle, prism layer and nacreous layer of H. cumingii were introduced. The structural characteristics of these matrix proteins were analyzed, including the amino acid composition, primary structure and advanced structure. The roles of these matrix proteins in biomineralization were also explained, including participating in the deposition of calcium carbonate, the formation of organic framework, the regulation of crystal morphology, the regulation of shell coloring and the correlation with pearl weight. The aim of this review is to provide basic references for further improving of pearl quality.