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  • 1  Study on preparation and the physical and chemical characterization of antihypertensive peptides from fish protein by enzymatic hydrolysis
    CHEN Jiwang
    2007, 31(4):512-517. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](14306) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6372)
    China is the rich country of fishery on fresh water, the yearly output of fresh water fish is 19.188 million tons, approximately occupy 40% of the total fish output. The main kinds of fish are the silver carp, variegated carp and grass carp. The processing proportion reaches above 75% in developed country, and there is only 30% in our country at present. The fresh water fish are sold primarily fresh with the low price, which has seriously affected the sustainable development of fresh water fishery. Not only have antihypertensive peptides from protein of fresh water fish the advantage of protein, but also they have the character of acid and hot stability as well as the better solubility and unique antihypertensive function, it is easier to digest and absorption than the protein and its amino acid. So It will be the future for deeply processing fresh water fish that fish protein was utilized to prepare for antihypertensive peptides by biological technology. In the paper grass carp protein was hydrolyzed by alcalase and angiotensin Ⅰ-converting enzyme inhibitory activities was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography for preparing fish antihypertensive peptides. The results indidated that appropriate hydrolysis conditions for alcalase were pH9.0, 50℃, ratio of alcalase to grass carp protein with 48, DH34.52%. The analyzing results of components showed that fish antihypertensive peptides made at the same hydrolysis conditions contained 81.26% of soluble N, 72.81% of peptides, 0.12% of fat, 3.54% of water and 9.47% of ash. Angiotensin Ⅰ-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of fish antihypertensive peptides was 70.35%; Its relative molecular weight assayed by size exclusion chromatography distributed from 124 to 10581, and mainly from 124 to 1062. Solubility of antihypertensive peptides from grass carp protein was analyzed during pH3 and pH11, the result showed that its solubility with 96.0% around was steady, and fish antihypertensive peptides could be extensively used in the food. Key words: grass carp; antihypertensive peptides; alcalase; high-performance liquid chromatography; molecular weight; size exclusion chromatography
    2  Looking back, recent progress and prospect of aquaculture
    2007, 31(6):825-840. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](13281) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5663)
    First of all, the development of aquaculture biotechnology in the world was briefly reviewed, mainly including gene cloning, gene transfer, chromosome manipulation, polyploid induction, gynogenesis and sex control in fish. Secondly, the development and achievement of aquaculture biotechnology recently in China were presented, including the screening and cloning of functional genes in aquaculture animals, the screening and application of molecular marker, breeding by gene engineering and cell engineering, culture of fish embryo stem cell and the establishment of cells library, products of gene engineering for fishery, vaccine development, the cryopreservation of fish sperm and embryo, and so on. Thirdly, the problem and deficiency of the development and research in aquaculture biotechnology in China were pointed out by comparing with the development abroad. Finally, the trend of aquaculture biotechnology was prospected, moreover, the trend and key points of research in 5 to 10 years in China were suggested.
    3  Review on the interrelationship between fishes and water enviroment
    2007, 31(3):391-399. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](12919) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6282)
    4  Artificial propagation and embryonic development of Elopichthys bambusa
    Mi Guo-qiang
    2007, 31(5):639-646. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](12712) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6650)
    Studies on techniques of parent fish nursing and artificial propagation of Elopichthys bambusa were carried out in Jinshan fishery farm of Huzhou city in Zhejiang province from 2003 to 2006. The results revealed that the two-year-old wild fish from Taihu lake after cultivating intensively in ponds for three years, the gonad maturity rate of the female and male fish was up to 100%. When the sexual mature parent fish were induced by both hormone injection and water flow, their average rates of spawning, fertilization and hatching were 100%, 86.5% and 88.3% respectively. Furthermore, the process of embryonic development was also recorded. The fertilization eggs hatch under 21~23℃, and the effective accumulated temperature is 2325.34(℃•h)
    5  Effects of dietary fish oil replaced with rapeseed oil on the growth,fatty acid composition and skin color of large yellow croaker(Larimichthys crocea)
    YI Xinwen ZHANG Wenbing MAI Kangsen SHENTU Jikang
    2013, 37(5):751-760. DOI: DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2013.38430
    [Abstract](12299) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.04 M](3052)
    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary fish oil replaced with rapeseed oil on rowth,muscle fatty acid compositions and skin color of large yellow croaker(initial weight 13.56?0.05 g).Five isoproteic and isolipidic experimental diets were formulated with %,25%,50%,75% and 100% replacement of fish oil by rapeseed oil.Results showed that these replacements did not significantly influence the survival rate(SR)and specific growth rate(SGR)(P>0.05).However,the feed conversion ratio(FCR)was ncreased with the increasing of replacement evels.Furthermore,FCR in the group of 100% rapeseed oil was significantly higher than that of 100% dietary fish oil( P<0.05).No significant difference was observed in the whole body compositions(P>0.05).The concentrations of C18∶0,C18∶1,C18∶2n-6,C18∶3n-3 and the saturated fatty acid(SFA),except C20∶4n-6 and C22∶5n-3 in muscle,were elevated with the increasing of dietary rapeseed oil levels.There were no significant differences in yellowness(b*)of dorsal and ventral skin among the five treatments(P>0.05).Lightness(L*)of the dorsal skin in the treatment with 100% dietary rapeseed oil was significantly higher than that with 100% dietary fish oil(P<0.05).However,L*of the ventral skin was not significantly different among the all eatments (P>0.05).Higher redness( *)of ventral skin and lower a* of dorsal skin were found in fish fed with 0% rapeseed oil.This study suggested that there were no ignificant effects of replacement of dietary fish oil by rapeseed oil on growth and body composition.However,the fatty acid omposition of muscle and the skin color were significantly nfluenced.
    6  Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Zhikong scallop by screening SSR-enriched library
    ZHAN Aibin Hu Jingjie Hu Xiaoli
    2008, 32(3):353-361. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](10575) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5321)
    In this study, 40 microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized for Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri) using the method of screening SSR-enriched library. DNA fragments containing microsatellites were captured by a piece of nylon membrane (Hybond N+) bound with the probe combinations of (AG)15 and (AC)15. The nylon membrane was washed three times in 2 ×SSC, 1% SDS at 62°C, two times for 15 min with the final wash for 30 min. The captured DNA was eluted in 0.1 × TE buffer and used to construct an SSR enrichment library. After transformation, the clones were regularly re-arrayed in a new agar plate with the density of about 300 clones per plate and screened with (AG)15 and (AC)15 probes labelled by the ECL system (Amersham). A total of 1200 clones derived from the enrichment library were screened and 532 clones gave the positive response. One hundred clones were randomly selected for sequencing and the results showed that all of the clones contain at least one microsatellite. Sixty-five primer pairs were designed using the software Primer Premier 5.0, of which 40 pairs can be amplified scorable PCR products. The polymorphisms of these scorable loci were assessed using 48 Chlamys farreri individuals, and the results showed that 37 loci were polymorphic. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 14 with an average of 7.0 alleles per locus, and the values of Ho, He and PIC varied from 0.1000 to 1.0000, 0.1197 to 0.9831 and 0.1172 to 0.9782, respectively. The results indicated that the method of screening SSR-enriched library is efficient and suitable to isolate a large amount of microsatellite markers for the target species of interest.
    7  The changes of the catch and age structure of lake anchovy and the relationship with environmental variation in Lake Taihu
    LIU Ensheng BAO Chuanhe WAN Quan
    2008, 32(2):229-235. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](9588) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](4984)
    Lake anchovy, Coilia ectenes taihuensis, a kind of smallsized and zooplanktivorous fish was the dominant fish in Lake Taihu. The changes of the fish catch and the relationship with environmental variation were studied, based on historical data from 1952 to 2004 and the studies from 2003 to 2005. The results were as follow: (1) The catches of the fish increased from 640.5 t in 1952 to 21 221 t in 2004. Especially since 1994 the increase had speeded up; (2) The age structure of the fish population was that 0+ individuals occupied only 33% in 1979 and 34% in 1980, but the figure increased to 99.04% ±2.21% in 2003 and 99.08%±0.80% in 2004; (3)0+ lake anchovy mainly fed on zooplankton. Cladocera, Copepoda and Rotifera respectively accounted for 89.77%±13.69%, 7.84%±11.53% and 2.39%±4.95% of its diet. The conclusion was that, human activities such as the obstructed buildings between river and the lake, over fishing, environmental pollution and the ecological characteristics of the fishes in Lake Taihu were responsible to the changes of catches and age structures of the fish. With the fish catches increasing, there was the trend of zooplankton standing mass declining during October in the lake. So the increase of the fish catches might enhance phytoplankton development in the lake.
    8  A review on hemocyanins of Crustacean
    PAN Luqing Jing Caixia
    2008, 32(3):484-491. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](9587) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](4845)
    Crustacean, especially crabs and shrimp have become more and more important objects in world aquaculture. Hemocyanins(Hcs) are the very important chromoprotein accounting for more than 90% of all the crustacean hemolymph protein. In recent years, many investigations have been focused on Hcs. In this paper, the research advances in crustacean hemocyanins were summarized following aspects: the basic structure, property of oxygen transport, immunity, anabolism of Hcs and so on. Hcs occurs as hexamers composed of six heterogeneous monomeric subunits. Each subunit holds an active site of two coppers, which corresponds to only one oxygen molecule. Resently, researchers put forward that Hcs hold important immune functions in crustacean. Hcs maybe exert their defence functions at least by two ways:one way is Hcs’s converting to phenoloxidase by cleavage of N-terminal sequences of Hcs; the other way is releasing antimicrobial fractions by cleavage of C-terminal of Hcs, which are broadly antimicrobial against a variety of bacteria and viruses. A newly-study proved that Hcs posess the property of agglutinin with low activity, which also contributes to immunity in crustacean to a certain extent. Hcs can also serve as carriers of metal ions, storage of protein. Besides Hcs can be used as a sign to observe the distribution of some molecules connecting with them. Hcs are synthesized in F-cell cytoplasm of the hepatopancreas. Evidence proved that ambient factors could also lead to Hcs’ anabolism.
    9  Antihypertensive function and relative molecular weight as well as component of amino acids of antihypertensive peptide prepared from protein of Mytilus coruscus
    JCWU and
    2007, 31(2):165-170. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](9303) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6536)
    10  CPUE standardization of chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) for Chinese large lighting purse seine fishery in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea 
    Ligang CHEN Xing-jun TIAN Si-quan
    2009, 33(6):1050-1059. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](8945) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.97 M](4323)
    Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) is one of the important pelagic fishery resources in the China's coastal waters. It is needed to standardize the catch per unit effort (CPUE) in the stock assessment. Many factors including seasonal, regional and marine environmental conditions affect the CPUE. In this paper, generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM), by which temporal, spatial, environmental, and fisheries vessels variables were chosen for analysis, were used to standardize CPUE of chub mackerel for Chinese large lightingpurse seine fishery in the East China Sea and Yellow Sea from 1998 to 2006, and evaluate impacts of environmental variables on CPUE. Firstly, GLM was applied to evaluate impacts of temporal, spatial, environmental, fisheries operational variables on the CPUE, and the significant factors. Then the significant variables were used in the GAM one by one to select an optimal GAM by using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The derived GAM was used to quantify the effects of temporal, spatial, environmental, and fisheries operational variables on the Chub mackerel catch rates and to derive standardized CPUE. The GLM analysis revealed the importance of eight variables ranked by decreasing magnitude: Year, Fleet, Fleet×Year, Month, Fleet ×Month, Longitude, Latitude and Sea surface temperature. The final GAM including eight significant variables derived from GLM analysis was the optimal model based on AIC and explained 27.78% of the variance in nominal CPUE. GAM analysis indicated that high CPUEs were found in the central East China Sea at sea surface temperatures ranging from 28 to 31 ℃ in summer and in the Yellow Sea at sea surface temperatures from 12 to 16 ℃ in winter. The standardized CPUE tended to decrease from 1998 to 2006, which might result from increased fishing efforts.
    11  Histological study on the gonadal development of Scatophagus argus
    CUI Dan LIU Zhiwei LIU Nanxi ZHANG Yingying ZHANG Junbin
    2013, 37(5):696-704. DOI: DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2013.38442
    [Abstract](8370) [HTML](0) [PDF 18.19 M](22817)
    The fish spotted scat Scatophagus argus,as a new resource of marine aquaculture,is popularized in South China in recent years.Studies on the gonadal development can provide the theoretical knowledge for the artificial propagation of Scatophagus argus.Generally,after two years of growth,some individuals can reach sexual maturation in the south of China.In this study,histological observation of gonads was performed based on paraffin section technique and HE staining method.The linear alignments of tubular structures are observed in the testis,which indicates that the testis of the Scatophagus argus belongs to the tubular type.The development of testis may be divided into 5 stages,i.e. multiplication of spermatogonial cells,growth of spermatocytes,maturation of spermatocytes,emergence of spermatoblasts,maturation of spermatozoa,etc.The average gonado somatic index of the testis was between 0.2% and 1.5% .The gonado somatic index(GSI)reached the peak at the stageⅤ,and the the peak of hepato somatic index(HSI)was observed at the stage Ⅳ.The oocyte deveolpment was divided into 5 phases and ovary development consisted of 5 stages accordingly.The average gonado somatic index of the testis was between 1.2% and 14.5%.The gonado somatic index(GSI)reached the peak value at the stage Ⅴ and the peak of hepato somatic index(HSI)was found in stage Ⅳ.The yolk nucleus and follicle membrane are observed at phase Ⅱ of oocyte.The number of yolk granules and oil droplets increased rapidly at the phaseⅢ,and subsequently yolk granules fused into pieces at the phase Ⅳ Apart from a large number of oocytes at the phase Ⅴ,there are still many oocytes of phase Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ in ovaries at the stage Ⅴ.The similar condition was also found in ovaries after spawning.It indicates that oocyte development in Scatophagus argus is asynchronous.
    12  Determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in aquatic water by high
    Zhang Tong-jing
    2007, 31(5):699-703. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](7788) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](5301)
    A high performance liquid chromatography method had been established for the determination of malachite green and leucomalachite green in aquatic water. Malachite green and leucomalachite green were extracted with dichloromethane, then concentrated, and dissolved with acetonitrile. Samples were chromatographed using an acetonitrile-ammonium acetate buffer mobile phase on a C18 column in line with a post column reactor filled with lead (IV) oxide and celite. The liner range was from 0.01μg•mL-1 to 1μg•mL-1 with r2 of 0.9999. The average recoveries of MG were 84.00%, 86.40%, 93.50%, and LMG were 74.00%, 89.00%, 91.80% when samples were spiked with MG and LMG of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0μg•mL-1 respectively. The detection limits of MG and LMG were 0.003μg•mL-1 and 0.004μg•mL-1 respectively. The RSDs were 4.278%-6.250% and 2.179%-6.757% respectively. The method is sensitive, accurate and suitable for the determination of trace malachite green and leucomalachite green in aquatic water. Key words: malachite green ; leucomalachite green; high performance liquid chromatography; aquatic water
    13  Biological characteristics of embryo and larval development in Japanese eel under artificial incubation
    LIU Ling ZHANG Jie-ming GUO Feng ZHANG Tao
    2010, 34(12):1800-1811. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231.2010.07007
    [Abstract](7638) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.96 M](5088)
    The purpose of this study is to accumulate the research data about artificial reproduction of Japanese eel and provide guidance on breaking through the key technology of successful larva survival.On the foundation of the studying on artificial reproduction in Japanese eel for many years,this experiment systematically studied the biological characteristics of embryo and the larva before 19 days incubation used by the methods of observing living body,computer-aided analysis,as well as tissue slice.The results indicated that the time needed 38 h 30 min from fertilized egg to the larva just leaving egg,and the total accumulated temperature was 885.50 ℃?h for this time.The development characteristic of embryo,similar to those of most other teleosts,is a classical meroblastic.The gastrulation is completed by cells wrapped downward and curled inward through yolk.The embryo development of Japanese eel can be divided into 14 stages.However,the development characteristic of larva was different from those of most other teleosts,such as transparent blood cell and Stransformer tubular heart,open oral cavity,3 pairs of genasauria that are developed and cannot close,about 6-9 pairs of neuromast which are located at both sides of body from the 3-day to 9-day of leaving egg,as well as the urohypophysis whose morphology continually changed during the development stages.Analyses for these results indicated that the environment of incubation for the larva of Japanese eel in nature may be very stable,and ingestion feed of larva may depend on the method of bite-after-touch.
    14  Effects of dietary carbohydrate levels on growth performance and liver metabolism functions of juvenile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus)
    JIANG Lihe WU Hongyu HUANG Kai MA Yanqun YANG Qiling YU Deguang ZHONG Lingxiang
    2013, 37(2):245-255. DOI: DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2013.38329
    [Abstract](7220) [HTML](0) [PDF 21.01 M](16056)
    This study was to investigate the effect of dietary carbohydrate levels on juvenile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus)growth performance and liver metabolism functions.Eight groups of 1 200 tilapias,in triplicate,with initial body weight of(0.36±0.01)g were fed eight experimental diets(similar protein and lipid contents but carbohydrate levels were 10%,15%,20%,25%,30%,35%,40%,45%,respectively).After 7 weeks feeding,the results showed that:(1)dietary carbohydrate level had significant effects on weight gain rate,survival rate,feed conversion ratio and hepato-somatic index(HSI)in tilapia juvenile(P<0.05).The growth rate of the fish fed the diet of 35% carbohydrate level was the highest among the treatments,and the feed conversion ratio of the fish fed the diet of 40% carbohydrate level was the lowest.(2)With increasing of dietary carbohydrate,the muscle glycogen and crude fat content gradually increased.However,the glycogen content rose initially and then declined.(3)The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,phosphofructokinase,and the concentrations of serum total protein and total bile acid were all significantly increased with the elevated levels of carbohydrate(P<0.05).However,the activities of liver esterase and lipoprotein lipase rose initially and then declined.(4)Liver tissues displayed a few lipid vacuolations in hepatocyte cells at 35%.At the carbohydrate level over 40%,liver histological sections showed a large number of hepatocyte lipid droplets vacuolar degeneration,nuclear migrations and cytoplasm disappearances.The lipid vacuolation areas in liver histological sections basically tallied with the lipid content of the liver,which were consistent with the severity of fatty liver.In conclusion,according to the observation of growth and prevention of late fatty liver disease,the most appropriate proportion of carbohydrate in the fish diet is around 29.10%-35.00%.
    15  Effects of levamisole on the non-specific immune response and disease resistance of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis
    liyi and
    2007, 31(6):785-791. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](6744) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](3615)
    Abstract: In order to determine the immunomodulatory effect of the dietary intake of levamisole in the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis), the crab were fed diets containing 0 (control), 100, 200 and 300 mg levamisole kg−1 dry diet for 7 days. The total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phagocytic activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), phenoloxidase (PO) activity and lysozyme (LSZ) activity were examined at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after administration of levamisole. Crab were challenged at 1.2 × 107 colony forming units (cfu) kg−1 crab weight with a virulent strain of Aeromonas hydrophila (CL99920) of E. sinensis at 4 weeks after administration of levamisole, and mortalities were recorded over a 10-day period. The results demonstrate that crab treated with levamisole showed significantly higher THC, the amount of hyaline cells (HC), phagocytic percentage (PP), respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), PO activity and LSZ activity than those of the control group (P<0.05). No significant differences in the amount of granular cells (GC) and phagocytic index (PI) of haemocyte among the crab fed with diets containing 0 (control) and those fed with diets at 100, 200 or 300 mg levamisole kg−1 dry die (P>0.05). Furthermore, the levamisole treated E. sinensis were the more resistant. It was concluded that E. sinensis that were fed with diets at 100, 200 or 300 mg levamisole kg−1 dry die showed increased immune ability as well as resistance to A. hydrophila infection. Under the experimental condition, the optimum dose of dietary intake of levamisole should be 200 mg levamisole kg−1 dry diet. Keywords: Eriocheir sinensis; levamisole; immune response; disease resistance; Aeromonas hydrophila
    16  New evidence of morphological characters and DNA barcoding of Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen,1788)
    LI Yuan SONG Na KHAN Fozia Siyal YANAGIMOTO Takashi GAO Tianxiang
    2013, 37(11):1601-1608. DOI: DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2013.38824
    [Abstract](6733) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.01 M](22545)
    The Pampus fishes are important commercial species and widely distributed in the coastal waters of China.Due to the similarities and complexities of morphological characters used in traditional taxonomy,taxonomic confusion has arisen in Pampusconcerning the nomenclature.Among the genus,perhaps none is more confusing in the taxonomic studies than Pampus argenteus.Up to date,no reports about neotype of P.argenteus can be found.In the present study,redescription of morphological characters and redefinition of DNA barcoding of P.argenteus are conducted based on sixteen specimens collected from Kuwait(northern waters of Kuwait),Pakistan(Sonmiani Bay,Ormara,Pasni),Beibu Bay and Taiwan during October 2010 to September 2012.The diagnostic characters of P.argenteus:dorsal fin Ⅶ-Ⅷ-39-43,pectoral fin 21-29,anal fin Ⅴ-Ⅵ-35-41,caudal fin 26-28.First gill arch with 10-12[(2-3) (8-9)]small and sparse gill rakers.Vertebrae 37-38.In the occipital region,the area of the wavy branches above lateral line is developed and plume-like,with a little obtuse edge.Ventral wavy branches below lateral line are curvy and shorter than that above lateral line,and not reaching the base of dorsal fin.Combining all COⅠ sequences of P.argenteus from GenBank with those of this study,four absolute groups can be found in all specimens based on the genetic differences in amino acids and distance between groups.From the NJ tree,we can find that only one sequence(FJ384702)is similar to our DNA barcoding of P.argenteus.Therefore,it is urgent to guarantee the correctness of all sequences from GenBank.Redescription of morphological characters and the right DNA barcoding of P.argenteus are given,which provide a guarantee for efficient and accurate study,and theoretic basis for classification of Pampus in future.
    17  Genetic diversity of introduced Barfin flounder (Verasper moseri) populations by AFLP analysis
    Ma Hongyu 陈松林
    2008, 32(3):321-326. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](6727) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](3500)
    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technology was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of three introduced populations (Yantai, Dalian and Laizhou) of introduced barfin flounder(Verasper moseri). The genetic distances and identity index were calculated, and according to them, the UPGMA dendrogram was constructed. A total of 827 loci ranged from 50-700 bp were detected using 10 primer combinations, and 8-37 polymorphic loci were detected per primer combination. The percentage of polymorphic loci of three introduced populations of barfin flounder were 29.14%, 15.60% and 20.31%, respectively. The Shannon’s information index were 0.1799, 0.0949 and 0.1231, respectively, and the Nei’s gene diversity were 0.1225, 0.0658 and 0.0848, respectively. The total genetic diversity level of three introduced populations was low, of which YT population was the highest, LZ population was lower, and DL population was the lowest. The genetic distance between YT introduced population and DL introduced population was the highest(0.0230), whereas, the genetic distance between LZ introduced population and DL population was the lowest(0.0129). The coefficient of gene differentiation(Gst) value was 0.219, showing a certain extent of differentiation among three populations of Barfin flounder.
    18  Review of selective breeding research andpractice in oyster cultivation
    XIAO Su YU Ziniu
    2008, 32(2):287-295. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](6499) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](3672)
    Oyster is one of the commercially important shellfish species in the world, and oyster cultivation has been one of the most prevalent shellfish quaculture industries. Selective breeding researches and programs for several commercial oyster species are briefly reviewed and the progress made from these programs is summarized in this paper. Particularly, the achievement of genetic improvement for growth, yield and disease resistance in some economically important oysters (the Pacific oyster, American oyster, European oyster and Sydney rock oyster et al.) is outlined accordingly here. So far, some fast growth lines and disease resistant strains have already been created. Two strategies, mass selection or family selection, were employed in these sel ective researches and programs. Both of them have been proved effective and fruitful. The estimations of heritability for live weight and whole size were in the range of 0.25-0.69 and of 0.2-0.5, respectively. All these efforts and results clearly showed that the regular breeding theories and techniques were applicable to oysters. Hopefully, the developments of regular breeding technology and that of molecular biology technology are expected to create a new era for oyster breeding science and practices in the future.
    19  RAPD analysis on genetic variance of F1 of Hyriopsis cumingii from three populations
    LI Jia-le DONG Zhi-guo ZHENG Han-feng
    2007, 31(6):848-852. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](6489) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](2343)
    With the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis method, forty tenbase arbitrary primers were used to study genetic variance of 9 F1 stocks produced from hybriding three geographical populations of Hyriopsis cumingii from Dongting Lake(DD), Poyang Lake(PP) and Taihu Lake(TT). The amplified results of thirteen primers were stably and clearly endowed with abundant stock polymorphy, and each primer could gain 2-17 fragments (200-3000 bp) in the 40 primers. Proportion of polymorphy was from 55% to 100%. AMOVA of 9 stocks indicated that 7.15% genetic variance was from intrastock and 92.85% from interstock. Fixation index (Fst), the three lower were DP and PD(0.013),TP and TT(0.020) and TP and TD(0.026),the 4 higher were as follows: PT and DT(0.165)>TT and PT(0.153) >〖JP〗TD and PT (0.150)> DD and PT(0.137). Inter stock gene diversity (π) was as follows:TP(0.335)>TD(0.317)>TT(0.308)>PD(0.300)>DP(0.298)>PP(0.297)>DT (0.291)>PT(0.291)>DD(0.269).
    20  The effects of temperature, salinity and light cycle on the growth and behavior of Apostichopus japonicus
    CHEN Yong GAO Feng
    2007, 31(5):687-691. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](6355) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](2399)
    Apostichopus japonicus was reared under different temperatures, salinities and light cycles so as to analyze the effects of temperature, salinities and light cycle on the growth and behavior of it. A. japonicus were sampled from Dakoujing Shrimp Cultural Cage, Lüshun City, which were 1yearold, and were accustomed to the experimental conditions for two days before each experiment. The average initial body wet weight of the experimental sea cucumber was 36.89 g (25.24-59.11 g), and the average initial body length was 6.68 cm (5.12-8.74 cm). In the temperature experiment, the sea cucumbers were reared in six plastic barrels (the cubage of each was about 60 L and one brick in each barrel) at six temperatures (9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 ℃). The results showed that the body wet weight increased under 9-21 ℃ and 15 ℃ was the optimum temperature to the growth of A. japonicus. When the temperature was beyond 22 ℃, A. japonicus began to aestivate. As soon as the temperature below 20 ℃, aestivation was over. In the salinity experiment, the sea cucumbers were reared in the same plastic barrels under six salinities (23, 26, 29, 32, 35 and 38). The salinity for growth of the A. japonicus was 29-33, and the optimum salinity was 32, the reason of which was that the sea cucumbers had been accustomed to the range of salinity in the ocean for a long time. The A. japonicus were reared in four plastic barrels for the light cycle experiment, and the conditions of the barrels were fully light (24hourlight), fully dark (24hourdark), half light dark (12hourlight and 12hourdark) and natural light. The growth of the sea cucumbers was best under the half light dark condition, and worst under the fully dark condition. In addition, the correlation analyses were given in each experiment.

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