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  • 1  Studies on embryonic and larval development of sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra)
    YAN Jun-xian WANG Shi-feng ZHOU Yong-can ZHU Yan-bo FENG Yong-qin
    2012, 36(7):1073-1080. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231.2012.27676
    [Abstract](3988) [HTML](0) [PDF 584.26 K](24071)
    Abstract:
    At present, the cultivation of sea cucumber in China is mainly concentrated in the north. The main rearing species is Apostichopus japonicu. However, in the southern part of china China , the high temperature of water is not fit for the cultivation of A. japonicu. As a result, to meet market demand, developing the cultivation of tropical sea cucumber is very necessary. Holothuria scabra is one of common tropical sea cucumbers with high economic value in Hainan. In this thesis, to enhance the seeding technology of H. scabra, the embryonic and larval development of H. scabra was observed and recorded. The heights of fertilized eggs, embryos and larvae were measured under the light microscope, and the time series table of embryonic and larval development was confirmed. The results show that the bloodstocks were spawned artificially by using the method of streaming and drying in the shade jointly. A large number of fertilized eggs were gathered and the fertilized rate was over 90%. The embryonic and larval development of H. scabra can be divided into the following stages: fertilized egg, cleavage, blastula, rotary blastula, gastrula, early auricularia, mid auricularia, late auricularia, doliolaria, pentactula and juvenile. At the average temperature of 29 ℃ and salinity of 34, the fertilized eggs needed 3 hours to develop to the blastula, and 4 hours to the rotary blastula, 5 hours to the gastrula, and 19 hours to auricularia. Then it took about 7 days to develop to the doliolaria and 15 days to develop to juvenile sea cucumber. Through the observation, the conclusion can be drawn that the polyspermy can make the embryo become developmental abnormal. In the end, the development ceased and the creature died. The sizes of larval arms and the appearance of globoid at the big auricularia stage can be used as the important indexes for evaluating the healthy status of the larva of H. scabra. The bigger the larval arms , the higher the appearance rates of globoid were, the higher the metamorphic rates and survival rates of the larva were. Through the comparison with larvae of other kinds of sea cucumbers, the conclusions are obtained that there is a salient structure at the end of larval body of H. scabra, but A. japonicus and Australostichopus mollis have no such organ; while the difference gives rise to the result that the sites of ossicles of different kinds of sea cucumbers are not the same. And, the schedules of the embryonic and larval development are different from H. scabra to other species of sea cucumber. The research could provide dependable data, photos, measures of disease control for the H. scabra larva cultured production to contribute to the exploitation and development of aquaculture of southern sea cucumber. So the market demand could be met and the natural resources could be protected.
    2  Histological study on the gonadal development of Scatophagus argus
    CUI Dan LIU Zhiwei LIU Nanxi ZHANG Yingying ZHANG Junbin
    2013, 37(5):696-704. DOI: DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2013.38442
    [Abstract](8367) [HTML](0) [PDF 18.19 M](22811)
    Abstract:
    The fish spotted scat Scatophagus argus,as a new resource of marine aquaculture,is popularized in South China in recent years.Studies on the gonadal development can provide the theoretical knowledge for the artificial propagation of Scatophagus argus.Generally,after two years of growth,some individuals can reach sexual maturation in the south of China.In this study,histological observation of gonads was performed based on paraffin section technique and HE staining method.The linear alignments of tubular structures are observed in the testis,which indicates that the testis of the Scatophagus argus belongs to the tubular type.The development of testis may be divided into 5 stages,i.e. multiplication of spermatogonial cells,growth of spermatocytes,maturation of spermatocytes,emergence of spermatoblasts,maturation of spermatozoa,etc.The average gonado somatic index of the testis was between 0.2% and 1.5% .The gonado somatic index(GSI)reached the peak at the stageⅤ,and the the peak of hepato somatic index(HSI)was observed at the stage Ⅳ.The oocyte deveolpment was divided into 5 phases and ovary development consisted of 5 stages accordingly.The average gonado somatic index of the testis was between 1.2% and 14.5%.The gonado somatic index(GSI)reached the peak value at the stage Ⅴ and the peak of hepato somatic index(HSI)was found in stage Ⅳ.The yolk nucleus and follicle membrane are observed at phase Ⅱ of oocyte.The number of yolk granules and oil droplets increased rapidly at the phaseⅢ,and subsequently yolk granules fused into pieces at the phase Ⅳ Apart from a large number of oocytes at the phase Ⅴ,there are still many oocytes of phase Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ in ovaries at the stage Ⅴ.The similar condition was also found in ovaries after spawning.It indicates that oocyte development in Scatophagus argus is asynchronous.
    3  New evidence of morphological characters and DNA barcoding of Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen,1788)
    LI Yuan SONG Na KHAN Fozia Siyal YANAGIMOTO Takashi GAO Tianxiang
    2013, 37(11):1601-1608. DOI: DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2013.38824
    [Abstract](6732) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.01 M](22540)
    Abstract:
    The Pampus fishes are important commercial species and widely distributed in the coastal waters of China.Due to the similarities and complexities of morphological characters used in traditional taxonomy,taxonomic confusion has arisen in Pampusconcerning the nomenclature.Among the genus,perhaps none is more confusing in the taxonomic studies than Pampus argenteus.Up to date,no reports about neotype of P.argenteus can be found.In the present study,redescription of morphological characters and redefinition of DNA barcoding of P.argenteus are conducted based on sixteen specimens collected from Kuwait(northern waters of Kuwait),Pakistan(Sonmiani Bay,Ormara,Pasni),Beibu Bay and Taiwan during October 2010 to September 2012.The diagnostic characters of P.argenteus:dorsal fin Ⅶ-Ⅷ-39-43,pectoral fin 21-29,anal fin Ⅴ-Ⅵ-35-41,caudal fin 26-28.First gill arch with 10-12[(2-3) (8-9)]small and sparse gill rakers.Vertebrae 37-38.In the occipital region,the area of the wavy branches above lateral line is developed and plume-like,with a little obtuse edge.Ventral wavy branches below lateral line are curvy and shorter than that above lateral line,and not reaching the base of dorsal fin.Combining all COⅠ sequences of P.argenteus from GenBank with those of this study,four absolute groups can be found in all specimens based on the genetic differences in amino acids and distance between groups.From the NJ tree,we can find that only one sequence(FJ384702)is similar to our DNA barcoding of P.argenteus.Therefore,it is urgent to guarantee the correctness of all sequences from GenBank.Redescription of morphological characters and the right DNA barcoding of P.argenteus are given,which provide a guarantee for efficient and accurate study,and theoretic basis for classification of Pampus in future.
    4  Effects of dietary carbohydrate levels on growth performance and liver metabolism functions of juvenile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus)
    JIANG Lihe WU Hongyu HUANG Kai MA Yanqun YANG Qiling YU Deguang ZHONG Lingxiang
    2013, 37(2):245-255. DOI: DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2013.38329
    [Abstract](7219) [HTML](0) [PDF 21.01 M](16051)
    Abstract:
    This study was to investigate the effect of dietary carbohydrate levels on juvenile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus)growth performance and liver metabolism functions.Eight groups of 1 200 tilapias,in triplicate,with initial body weight of(0.36±0.01)g were fed eight experimental diets(similar protein and lipid contents but carbohydrate levels were 10%,15%,20%,25%,30%,35%,40%,45%,respectively).After 7 weeks feeding,the results showed that:(1)dietary carbohydrate level had significant effects on weight gain rate,survival rate,feed conversion ratio and hepato-somatic index(HSI)in tilapia juvenile(P<0.05).The growth rate of the fish fed the diet of 35% carbohydrate level was the highest among the treatments,and the feed conversion ratio of the fish fed the diet of 40% carbohydrate level was the lowest.(2)With increasing of dietary carbohydrate,the muscle glycogen and crude fat content gradually increased.However,the glycogen content rose initially and then declined.(3)The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase,phosphofructokinase,and the concentrations of serum total protein and total bile acid were all significantly increased with the elevated levels of carbohydrate(P<0.05).However,the activities of liver esterase and lipoprotein lipase rose initially and then declined.(4)Liver tissues displayed a few lipid vacuolations in hepatocyte cells at 35%.At the carbohydrate level over 40%,liver histological sections showed a large number of hepatocyte lipid droplets vacuolar degeneration,nuclear migrations and cytoplasm disappearances.The lipid vacuolation areas in liver histological sections basically tallied with the lipid content of the liver,which were consistent with the severity of fatty liver.In conclusion,according to the observation of growth and prevention of late fatty liver disease,the most appropriate proportion of carbohydrate in the fish diet is around 29.10%-35.00%.
    5  The analysis of gastric evacuation characteristics and associated mathematical models in juvenile southern catfish(Silurus meridionalis)
    ZENG Ling-qing LI Feng-jie CAO Zheng-dong ZHANG Yao-guang
    2011, 35(2):231-237. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231
    [Abstract](5921) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.25 M](12385)
    Abstract:
    To examine the change traits of chyme mass and fit to the gastric evacuation data in juvenile southern catfish(Silurus meridionalis),forty eight experimental fish[(58.45±1.66) g,(19.4±0.2) cm]were fed individually with a loach meal[(3.33±0.09) g]equivalent to 6%(5.8%±0.2%)of the catfish’s body mass,and removed from the various intervals(0,2,4,8,16,24,36,48 h)after feeding at 25 ℃.The wet and dry mass of the chyme were determined and the applicability of three mathematical models was compared by the good of fitness fitted to gastric evacuation data in juvenile southern catfish.The results of present study showed that:the wet and dry mass of remaining food in stomach as well as percentage of food residual decreased profoundly as postprandial time increased;Though three mathematical models all fitted well the gastric evacuation data,there still were several significant differences among these regression results.As mentioned above,it suggested that the best mathematical model fitted to gastric evacuation data in juvenile southern catfish was the squareroot model and its regression equations for wet mass and dry mass of the chyme mass were Y0.5=1.889-0.051×t(R2=0.87,P<0.001)and Y0.5=0.870-0.024×t(R2=0.86,P<0.001),respectively;The gastric evacuation rate of S.meridionalis was among the range of 0.051 g/h,and the 99% of gastric evacuation time was among the range of 36.7 h which was similar to the actual measurement values(36 h)in the present study;The juvenile southern catfish and Chinese catfish possess the similar gastric evacuation characters and the optimum mathematical model was the squareroot model.
    6  The invasion and its impact for the spread of Chthamalus challengeri in Zhoushan sea area
    LIU Yan WU Huixian XUE Junzeng
    2014, 38(7):1047-1055. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231.2014.49140
    [Abstract](5877) [HTML](0) [PDF 13.40 M](9707)
    Abstract:
    To prevent and control the invasion of non-indigenous species,meanwhile,to protect ecological security and biological resources in Zhoushan sea area,we set up 11 sampling sites to investigate the biodiversity of intertidal organisms in 2010 and 2012,respectively.The study collected a species of barnacle in Yangshan deep water port for the first time in 2010.This species has a rhombic aperture,porominent joint ridge and membranous basis.We could accurately identify the species as Chthamalus challengeri by its four teeth of mandible,legible incision of maxillule and quadrate sheet cirrus.The genetic distances and population genetic structure of C.challengeri were investigated using mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit Ⅰ(COⅠ)gene sequences.The population genetic distance of samples collected from Zhoushan sea area and COⅠ sequences downloaded from NCBI is 0.994%,which shows a great possibility for the new species from Zhoushan sea area to be the species of C.challengeri.The result of Neighbor-Joining tree showed the same verdict with population genetic distance result,which provides corroborative evidence for the identification of the new species from Zhoushan sea area.The results of ecology survey showed that C.challeneri were collected in minority area of Zhoushan from Yangshan deep water port,Shengsi,Qushan,Daishan and Zhujiajian,and the density of it ranged from(6±2)to(28±11)ind./m2.In 2012,we could collect it from all the sampling sites of Zhoushan archipelago,the densities for the 6 sampling sites which had collected C.challengeri in 2010 ranged from(55±8)to(39 533±6 243)ind./m2 in 2012.The densities of other 5 sampling sites ranged from(16±4)to(20 000±4 000)ind./m2.This study elaborates the research status of C.challangeri as a non-indigenous species in Zhoushan sea area from various angles of its biological characteristics,population historic distribution area,introduced geschichte and spread status.
    7  Comparative study of estrogenic effects of estradiol,nonylphenol,polychlorinated biphenyls,cadmium,zinc and its mixtures on Tanichthys albonubes
    YANG Li-li ZHANG Jing FANG Zhan-qiang
    2011, 35(6):838-845. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231
    [Abstract](6031) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.79 M](8810)
    Abstract:
    Environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals(EDCs) can affect the normal endocrine system of organism.Its huge threat to the environment and the health of human beings arouses international attention,which has been the hot topic in environmental research.Vitellogenin(Vtg) production in male and juvenile fish can provide a sensitive biomarker of reproductive disruption to indicate and estimate estrogenicity of EDCs.It has been proved that the vitellogenin of Tanichthys albonubes is a perfect biomarker to be used to monitor EDCs in environment.The objective of the present study was to detect the estrogenic responses of estradiol-17 beta(E2),nonylphenol(NP),polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs),Cd2+,Zn2+ and its mixture in T.albonubes.Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(Native-PAGE),lipo-staining method,indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) were used to analyze the whole body homogenate from treated male T.albonubes.The results of Native-PAGE showed that after exposure to 10 μg/L E2,50 μg/L E2 for 7 days or 14 days,the male T.albonubes could synthesize Vtg.It also showed that the more time,the more vitellogenin and the higher the concentration of E2,the more Vtg.The results of ELISA showed that the male T.albonubes could be induced to synthesize Vtg after exposure to 0.1,0.5,1.0 μg/L E2 for 7,14 days or exposure to 200,300 μg/L NP for 14 days.The combined effects of NP,PCB,Cd2+ or Zn2+together with different level E2 were dissimilar with their individual effects.The interaction of NP and E2 was synergism action.This article also discussed the combined effects of environmental estrogen mechanism.
    8  Progress on researches of cellular and humoral defense mechanisms in molluscs
    ZHOU Yong-Can
    1997, 21(4).
    [Abstract](4304) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](8355)
    Abstract:
    9  Analysis and identification of different strains of Pyropia yezoensis using sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers
    JIA Wei HUANG Linbin YAN Xinghong
    2013, 37(10):1495-1502. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231.2013.38682
    [Abstract](6239) [HTML](0) [PDF 4.96 M](8223)
    Abstract:
    6 strains of Pyropia yezoensis (Ueda)M.S.Hwang et H.G.Choi were analyzed using SRAP(sequence-related amplified polymorphism)markers in order to identify the germplasm.DNAs from conchocelis of 6 strains were screened with 35 primer combinations,of which 11 primer combinations gave stable and reproducible amplification patterns.Among the total 131 fragments,125 fragments(95.42%)were polymorphic.The genetic distances of 6 strains were between 0.364 3 and 0.867 9,and the average was 0.593 0.Cluster analysis of UPMGA showed a good and true relationships among the 6 strains.The results demonstrated that SRAP could be a useful tool in germplasm identification of P.yezoensis strains.From the total 131 fragments,4 fragments amplified by 1 primer combination were used to develop the DNA fingerprints of 6 strains of P.yezoensis.One specific fragment of TM-18 was obtained in the fragments amplified by primer combination ME1/EM6.According to the DNA sequence of the fragments,a specific pair-primer was designed and it achieved stable amplification of a 340 bp specific band in both DNA of conchocelis and blades of TM-18.The specific marker could be used in fast identification of TM-18 strain.
    10  The full length cDNA cloning and expression analysis of RXR from the Chinese mitten crab(Eriocheir sinensis)
    WANG Yao YANG Zhigang GUO Zihao YAO Qinqin ZENG Qitao YANG Xiaozhen CHENG Yongxu
    2013, 37(12):1761-1769. DOI: DOI:10.3724/SP.J.1231.2014.48754
    [Abstract](5938) [HTML](0) [PDF 10.16 M](8200)
    Abstract:
    Retinoid X receptor(RXR)is a member of the second subfamily of nuclear receptor superfamily.In the insect and the crustacean,RXR is an important signaling protein with varied roles in regulating aspects of reproductive maturation,molting and embryo development.In this study,we cloned RXR gene from Eriocheir sinensis using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR)and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends(RACE),and primers were designed according to the conserved sequence of RXR from Gecarcinus lateralis.The full-length cDNA sequence of RXR is 1 517 bp and codes a protein of about 433 amino acids.The amino acid sequence comparison results showed that the RXR gene of Eriocheir sinensis shared 96% identity with Gecarcinus lateralis,using BLASTn and BLASTx software.Phylogenetic tree of RXR gene generated by Neighbor Joining method suggested that RXR is clustered closely with that of Gecarcinus lateralis.The expression of the gene in different tissues and molting stages of E.sinensis was analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR.The result showed the RXR mRNA was expressed in all tissues examined and highly in Y-organ,with small amount in hepatopancreas,gill and muscle,trace in heart,stomach,intestine,thoracic ganglion and brain ganglion.RXR mRNA was detected with high volume in Y-organ compared to hepatopancreas,muscles and gill at the same molting stages of the crab.RXR mRNA of Y-organ in stage D was significantly(P<0.05)higher than that of stage AB and stage C.It also had significant difference(P<0.05)between muscles at stage AB and stage E,and there was no significant difference expression in hepatopancreas and gill tissues in different molting stages.
    11  Characteristics of genetic composition and reproduction in allotriploid hybrids of red crucian carp(♀)×blunt snout bream()
    QIN Qinbo DAI Jing LIU Shaojun LIU Yun
    2014, 38(3):356-361. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231.2014.48955
    [Abstract](5116) [HTML](0) [PDF 14.90 M](7379)
    Abstract:
    Red crucian carp(abbreviated as RCC)with 100 chromosomes belonged to the Cyprininae subfamily,and the blunt snout bream(Megalobrama amblycephala)(abbreviated as BSB)with 48 chromosomes belonged to the Cultrinae subfamily.In the first generation of RCC(♀)×BSB(),we obtained triploid hybrids(abbreviated as 3nRB)and tetraploid hybrids(abbreviated as 4nRB).In this study,we made the analysis of karyotype of the chromosomes,FISH of the chromosomes and the gonadal development in 3nRB.The results are as follows:(1)3nRB hybrids had 124 chromosomes with a karyotype of 31m+45sm+26st+22t,which possessed two sets of RCC-derived chromosomes,and one set of BSB-derived chromosomes.(2)The species-specific repetitive sequences probe hybridized to 100 chromosomes in RCC but none in BSB.In 3nRB,the probe hybridized to 100 chromosomes,suggesting that they possessed two sets of RCC-derived chromosomes.(3)The gonad of 3nRB displayed developmental anomaly,which was considered as a retrogression trait.This paper discussed the formation mechanism of 3nRB,and provided experimental data for study of distant hybridization and polyploidy in fish,which is of importance in genetic breeding.
    12  The study of muscular nutritional components and fish quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in ecological model of cultivating grass carp with grass
    CHENG Huihui XIE Congxin LI Dapeng XIAO Yehong TIAN Xing CHEN Jie TANG Rong QI Chenglong MA Lingqiao
    2016, 40(7):1050-1059. DOI: 10.11964/jfc.20150709964
    [Abstract](3562) [HTML](414) [PDF 654.57 K](7140)
    Abstract:
    To investigate the effects of muscular nutritional components and fish quality of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in ecological model of cultivating grass carp with grass, the ecological grass mainly fed with grass and feed grass carp fed with artificially formulated feed, respectively 16 individuals, were randomly selected to measure some indicators. These indicators included water holding capacity and texture profiles parameters in muscle, contents of nutritional components, mineral elements, amino acids and fatty acids in muscle. The results showed no significant difference in hepatosomatic index and shell rate between ecological grass carp and feed grass carp. Compared with these feed grass carp, significantly lower value in drop loss, no significantly lower value in flesh leaching loss, no significantly higher value in liquid loss and no significant difference in pH value were observed in muscle of ecological grass carp. Hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and resilience in muscle had no significant difference between ecological grass carp and feed grass carp. The content of crude fat in muscle of ecological grass carp was significantly lower than that of feed grass carp, while the contents of moisture, ash and crude protein in muscle had no significant difference. The contents of phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) in muscle of ecological grass carp were significantly higher than those of feed grass carp, and the contents of magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) in muscle of ecological grass carp were very significantly higher than that of feed grass carp. The compositions of amino acids of ecological grass carp and feed grass carp were basically the same, containing 17 amino acids, wherein the essential amino acids in muscle is 6.85% and 6.27%, respectively. The essential amino index (EAAI) of feed grass carp (77.29) was higher than that of ecological grass carp (76.07). The ecological grass carp and feed grass carp both contained 19 fatty acids where in the contents of palmitic acid, arachidonic acid (ARA), linoleic acid (LA), oleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and stearic acid were high, as the main fatty acid. The contents of eicosapentanoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) had significance difference (were 8.95% and 10.70%, respectively). These results indicated that there was no significant difference in muscular texture profiles. The ecological grass carp had characteristics of higher water-holding ability, lower content of fat and higher content of mineral elements than those in muscle of feed grass carp.
    13  Artificial propagation and embryonic development of Elopichthys bambusa
    Mi Guo-qiang
    2007, 31(5):639-646. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](12712) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6642)
    Abstract:
    Studies on techniques of parent fish nursing and artificial propagation of Elopichthys bambusa were carried out in Jinshan fishery farm of Huzhou city in Zhejiang province from 2003 to 2006. The results revealed that the two-year-old wild fish from Taihu lake after cultivating intensively in ponds for three years, the gonad maturity rate of the female and male fish was up to 100%. When the sexual mature parent fish were induced by both hormone injection and water flow, their average rates of spawning, fertilization and hatching were 100%, 86.5% and 88.3% respectively. Furthermore, the process of embryonic development was also recorded. The fertilization eggs hatch under 21~23℃, and the effective accumulated temperature is 2325.34(℃•h)
    14  Antihypertensive function and relative molecular weight as well as component of amino acids of antihypertensive peptide prepared from protein of Mytilus coruscus
    JCWU and
    2007, 31(2):165-170. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](9303) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6532)
    Abstract:
    15  Effects of dietary cholinechloride, betaine and lysophospholipids on the growth performance,fat metabolism and blood indices of crucian carp(Carassais auratus gibelio)
    LI Hongxia LIU Wenbin LI Xiangfei WANG Jingjing LIU Bo XIE Jun
    2010, 34(2):292-299. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231.2010.06416
    [Abstract](4230) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.72 M](6386)
    Abstract:
    A feeding experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth performance, fat metabolism and blood indices of diets containing different additives by crucian carp, Carassius auratus gibelio [mean initial weight of (7.46 ± 0.2)g], for 67 days. 450 healthy fish were randomly divided into five groups in the experiment, group 1 was control group fed basic feed, whereas groups 2,3, 4 and 5 were fed the basic feed added with 0.05% lysophospholipids, 0.1% lysophospholipids, 0.1% betaine and 0.15% cholinechloride, respectively. At the end of the experiment, growth performance, fat metabolism and blood biochemical parameters were observed to estimate the function of these three additives. The results showed that weight growth ratio (WGR) of carps in groups 4(added with 0.1% betaine )and 5(added with 0.15%cholinechloride) tended to be higher than that of fish in group 1 (control) and this difference was significant (P<0.05), and a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) was found in groups 3 (added with 0.1% lysophospholipids), 4 (added with 0.1% betaine) and 5(added with 0.15%cholinechloride) too (P<0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and crude protein content in body composition were significantly higher in experimental groups than those in control group (P<0.05). However, the liver fat, muscle fat content in experimental groups were lower than those in the control group, of which the test group of liver body ratio, liver fat content was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). The triglyceride levels in groups 4 (added with 0.1% betaine) and 5(added with 0.15%cholinechloride) were lower than those in control group while the triglyceride levels in groups 2(added with 0.05% lysophospholipids) and 3(added with 0.1% lysophospholipids) were higher than those in control group (P>0.05). Reduced plasma cholesterol levels were found in experimental groups while the increased free fatty acid contents were observed in experimental groups (P<0.05). The experimental groups significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the volume (P<0.05), reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) of the volume (P<0.05), while aspartate aminotransferase (GOT), alanine aminotransferase (GPT), glucose (Glu) have no significant effect (P>0.05). In conclusion, it could improve growth performance, reduce the fat content in liver and enhance antioxidation function obviously by adding 0.1% lysophospholipids, betaine and 0.21% cholinechloride in basic diet of crucian carp,Carassius auratus gibelio in our study.
    16  Study on preparation and the physical and chemical characterization of antihypertensive peptides from fish protein by enzymatic hydrolysis
    CHEN Jiwang
    2007, 31(4):512-517. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](14306) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6366)
    Abstract:
    China is the rich country of fishery on fresh water, the yearly output of fresh water fish is 19.188 million tons, approximately occupy 40% of the total fish output. The main kinds of fish are the silver carp, variegated carp and grass carp. The processing proportion reaches above 75% in developed country, and there is only 30% in our country at present. The fresh water fish are sold primarily fresh with the low price, which has seriously affected the sustainable development of fresh water fishery. Not only have antihypertensive peptides from protein of fresh water fish the advantage of protein, but also they have the character of acid and hot stability as well as the better solubility and unique antihypertensive function, it is easier to digest and absorption than the protein and its amino acid. So It will be the future for deeply processing fresh water fish that fish protein was utilized to prepare for antihypertensive peptides by biological technology. In the paper grass carp protein was hydrolyzed by alcalase and angiotensin Ⅰ-converting enzyme inhibitory activities was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography for preparing fish antihypertensive peptides. The results indidated that appropriate hydrolysis conditions for alcalase were pH9.0, 50℃, ratio of alcalase to grass carp protein with 48 AU.kg-1, DH34.52%. The analyzing results of components showed that fish antihypertensive peptides made at the same hydrolysis conditions contained 81.26% of soluble N, 72.81% of peptides, 0.12% of fat, 3.54% of water and 9.47% of ash. Angiotensin Ⅰ-converting enzyme inhibitory activities of fish antihypertensive peptides was 70.35%; Its relative molecular weight assayed by size exclusion chromatography distributed from 124 to 10581, and mainly from 124 to 1062. Solubility of antihypertensive peptides from grass carp protein was analyzed during pH3 and pH11, the result showed that its solubility with 96.0% around was steady, and fish antihypertensive peptides could be extensively used in the food. Key words: grass carp; antihypertensive peptides; alcalase; high-performance liquid chromatography; molecular weight; size exclusion chromatography
    17  Review on the interrelationship between fishes and water enviroment
    ESLIU
    2007, 31(3):391-399. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.00001
    [Abstract](12919) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](6279)
    Abstract:
    18  Effects of different dietary vitamin A levels on growth and serum biochemical parameters for Japanese seabass(Lateolabrax japonicus)
    ZHANG Lu LI Jing TAN Fangfang MAI Kangsen ZHANG Chunxiao LI Huitao AI Qinghui
    2015, 39(1):88-96. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231.2015.59406
    [Abstract](3192) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.10 M](6276)
    Abstract:
    A 9-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary vitamin A level on growth and serum biochemical parameters for juvenile Japanese seabass,Lateolabrax japonicus.Six groups of isonitrogenous(43% crude protein)and isoenergetic(20 kJ/g dry matter)purified diets(Diets 1-6)containing 245,1 005,1 835,3 781,7 583 and 15 273 IU vitamin A(supplied as retinyl acetate)per kg diet were fed twice daily to triplicate groups(10 fish/group)of fish[initial weight(10.20±0.14)g/fish]in 120 L plastic tanks.Fish fed the basal diet(Diet 1)developed heavy mortality,exophthalmos,haemorrhages at the base of the fins and distortion of operculum.None of these deficiency signs were observed in fish fed the vitamin A supplemented diets(Diet 2-6).Carcass lipid content significantly increased with dietary increasing vitamin A level,while protein and moisture showed no significant differences.The analyses of serum parameters showed that the activity of alkaline phosphatase(AKP),the content of triacylglycerol(TG)and total cholesterol(TC)all significantly increased with the increase of dietary vitamin A level,while the activities of glutamate transaminase(ALT)and aspartate aminotransferase(AST)had the reverse trend.Broken-line regression analysis of weight gain or liver vitamin A content showed that juvenile Japanese seabass require a minimum of 1 934.8 IU vitamin A/kg diet for maximal growth or 3 546.6 IU vitamin A/kg diet for maximal liver vitamin A deposition.
    19  Histological study on the gonadal development of Osteoglossum bicirrhosum
    WANG Xuejie TIAN Yuan LIU Yi MU Xidong LIU Chao HU Yinchang LUO Jianren
    2014, 38(4):525-531. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231.2014.48831
    [Abstract](5280) [HTML](0) [PDF 20.32 M](6048)
    Abstract:
    The histology of gonadal development of Osteoglossum bicirrhosum which is a popular ornamental fish was studied by paraffin section technique and H.E staining method.The morphological characteristics and structures of ovary at stage Ⅱ-Ⅴ and testis at stage Ⅱ-Ⅵ were described.Moreover, the development of oocyte and spermatid were also described.The results showed that four months old ovaries were in stage Ⅱ, while the oocytes were in phase Ⅱ, and the nucleus occupied the half part of the cell.Eight months to two years old ovaries were in stage Ⅲ, most of the oocytes were in phase Ⅲ and egg macular and yolk granules could be observed;two to three years old ovaries were in stage Ⅳ, with the oocytes in phase Ⅳ which had yolk substance accumulated quickly and oolemma drape appeared.The ovary in stage Ⅴ was three years or more than three years old, and the oocytes in phase Ⅴ were full of yolk granules with the drape of oolemma disappeared.The primary spermatocyte in testis could be seen at the stage Ⅱ.Eight months to two years old testes were in stage Ⅲ, while the secondary spermatocyte appeared and the seminiferous tubules took shapes, and spermatids are full of the seminiferous tubules, primary spermatocyte, secondary spermatocyte and spermatids were seen at the stage Ⅳ, while the seminiferous tubules of void appeared.The testis in stage Ⅴ was three years old and more than three years old, the spermatozoa appeared and the void of seminiferous tubules became large.The testis highly vascularized and with connective tissue increased was also observed which was in stage Ⅵ.This study will provide the basic data for the artificial reproduction of O.bicirrhosum.
    20  Research review of Haematococcus pluvialis and astaxathin
    GAO Guiling CHENG Jiayang MA Jiong
    2014, 38(2):297-304. DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1231.2014.48862
    [Abstract](3235) [HTML](0) [PDF 5.68 M](6042)
    Abstract:
    This article describes astaxanthin production methods and the latest research progress of the biological activity.It summarizes the current industry processing and techniques,such as the extraction from aquatic byproducts,pluvialis algae and Phaffia yeast.Haematococcus pluvialis is the most ideal biogenetic derivation because of the highest natural astaxanthin.Astaxanthin biological activity and applications,such as anti—oxidation,anti—inflammatory,anti—infective,anti—tumor,anti—fatigue,prevention of osteoporosis were also introduced.Pharmacology and toxicology study shows that astaxanthin not only can be used as the bait additives in aquatic farming,but also has a wide application in food,drugs,cosmetics,and high value nutritional health products,so it has great market potential.Finally,the article made summary and outlook of using H.pluvialis to produce astaxathin,which has great meanings for the further study of H.pluvialis.

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