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  • 1  PATHOGENIC AERQMQNAS HYDROPHILA AND THE FISH DISEASES CAUSED BY IT
    Lu Chengping
    1992, 16(3):282-288.
    [Abstract](3948) [HTML](0) [PDF 648.98 K](2363) [Cited by](194)
    Abstract:
    尽管早在1891年就有因嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)感染引致蛙“红腿病”的报道,但由于该菌在自然界尤其是水中广泛分布,一般为正常共栖菌,因此长期以来对其致病性并未重视。近年来在我国南方各省淡水养殖鱼类流行暴发性传染病,有报道系为该菌所致败血症。此外在其它水生经济动物、哺乳动物亦有类似发现。人类因之而发生胃肠炎及伤口感染的病例也日渐增多。嗜水气单胞菌致病问题已跃然成为当代公共卫生瞩目的对象,为人们提出了人一畜一鱼共患病的研究新课题。本文介绍该菌的分类地位、病原特性、与鱼有关的流行病学及病原分离与鉴定方面的研究进展。
    2  ADVANCES AND STUDIES ON EARLY LIFE HISTORY OF FISH
    Yin Mingcheng
    1991, 15(4):348-358.
    [Abstract](3391) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.14 M](2003) [Cited by](127)
    Abstract:
    鱼类早期生活史的研究,主要涉及卵和仔鱼发育,仔鱼最佳饲养条件、饵料密度、营养、生长、临界期、饥饿、捕食、环境耐力和毒性反应等和渔业密切相关的诸因子,是鱼类自然资源繁殖保护和养殖业苗种培育的基础。近二、三十年来,鱼类早期生活史研究已成为水产科学的一个崭新领域,在国际上受到广泛重视并迅速发展。国际海洋开发理事会(ICES)曾三次举行鱼类早期生活史学木讨论会,分别由Blaxter(1974)、Lasker和Sherman(1981)以及Blaxter等(1988)主持。
    3  Feeding and growth of the larva stage of fish
    Yin Mingcheng
    1995, 19(4).
    [Abstract](2815) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](1840) [Cited by](102)
    Abstract:
    4  A PHA INJECTION METHOD IN VIVO FOR THE RAPID OBTAINMENT OF LARGE NUMBERS OF METAPHASE FIGURES FROM KIDENY CELLS OF TELEOSTS
    Lin Yihao
    1982, 6(3):201-208.
    [Abstract](3197) [HTML](0) [PDF 834.67 K](2274) [Cited by](83)
    Abstract:
    The method of kideny cell-PHA (phytohemagglutinin)culture in vitro for thestudy of fish chromosomes was reported by Yamamoto, K. and Y. Ojima (1973). Inthis paper a new method for inducing fish chromosomes divisions is proposed. The PHAadministration was by pericardial cavity injection in vivo, instead of adding it into thecell culture medium in vitro. The injection does of PHA is 8-10μg/g (body weight),the injection position is better located at the base of pectoral fin, the time for responseneeds about 4-4.5 hours after injection. It needs only 7 hours to obtain a largenumbers of mitotic metaphase figures of kidney cell. About 30 species of teleost fisheswere examined in the experiments. e. g. Parabramis pekinensis, Megalobrama hof-fmanni, Barbodes denticulatus, Cirrhinus molitorella, Clarias fuscus, Monopterusalbus, Anguilla japonica, Ophicephalus argus, Tilapia mossambica etc. all givingsatisfactory results. The average percentage of mitotic division by PHA injectionmethod is 1.56 times than that of the kidney cell-PHA culture; 1.82 times of theblood-PHA culture and 4.51 times of the usual air-drying, reaching 9.86%. Thismethod has a double advantage being rapid and simple, and also adaptable to thefield work.
    5  Nutrients and composition of free amino acid in edible part of Pinctada martensii
    Zhang Chaohua
    2000, 24(2).
    [Abstract](3319) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](2634) [Cited by](83)
    Abstract:
    Nutrients and composition of free amino acids in edible part of pearl oyster, Pinctada martenssi , were studied in this paper. The content of crude protein is 74. 9% ( dry basis) . The edible protein is rich in tasty amino acids such as 2. 21% glutamic acid, 1. 45% aspartic acid and 1. 01% glycine. The protein nutrient value is high because of the score of amino acid being 82 and the first limiting amino acid being sulfurcontaining amino acid ( Met and Cys) as compared with the FAO/WHO suggested level ( 1973) . Taurine is as high as 1. 38% , which account s for 74% of the total free amino acid. The edible part of pearl oyster is rich in minerals, especially microelement s Zn and Se.
    6  An analysis of the nutritive composition in muscle of Monopterus albus
    SHU Miao an
    2000, 24(4).
    [Abstract](3171) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](1997) [Cited by](79)
    Abstract:
    Contents of moisture, protein and lipid were analyzed in the muscle of mud eel fingerling ( weight: 9. 2- 15. 5g) , juvenile mud eel ( weight : 62. 3- 76. 0g) , small adult mud eel ( weight: 108. 3- 121. 4g) and big adult mud eel ( weight: 222. 8- 242. 8g) , and so was the composition of fatty acids, amino acids. The contents of protein ranged from 18. 79% to 19. 93% . The contents of lipid were fairly low. The fatty acids contained 19. 15% highunsaturated fatty acids( HUFA) . The essential amino acids accounted for 40. 98% of total amino acids. The content of glutamic acid was considerably high, reaching about 16. 95% of total amino acids.
    7  ON THE PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF THE HEMOLYTIC ASCITESOSIS OF ALLOGYNOGENETIC CRUCIAN CARP
    Sun Qihuan Sun Peifang Jin Lihua Wu Jiannong
    1991, 15(2):130-139.
    [Abstract](3023) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.16 M](1631) [Cited by](78)
    Abstract:
    Hemolytic ascitesosis of allogynogenetic crucian carp occured rece-ntly both in the suburb of Shanghai and Wujian County (Jiashu Province). Experi-ments of isolation and artificial infection tests have been done and the virulent pat-hogenic bacteria strains such as N-1-2,89-7-14, D-Ⅱ-1 were available. Accordingto the morphological features of the bacterium, cultural characteristics,physiologicaland biochemical reacts, and the G+C Mol % of these strains, it was identified to be Aeromonas sobia and A. hydrophila of moving Aeromonas. By applying the methods of tachypleus amebocyte lysate, serum of five ill fishwhich were artifecally infected by N-1-2 strain has been given the qualitative ana-lysis of endotoxin, and the result is positive. The same experiment has been appliedto the serum of four other healthy fish, and the result is negative. Then the disrup-ted bacteria cell suspension of the strain is injected to healthy fish, the result ob-tained are the same as those caused by pathogeny cells infection, so it is consideredthat the pathogony during its growing, reproduction and self-dissolving within thefish produces and liberates such a substance as endotoxin which caused the fish di-sease.
    8  STUDY ON THE TOXICITY OF CARBONATE-ALKALINE TO FISHES
    Lei Yanzhi Doug Shuanglin Shen Chenggang
    1985, 9(2):171-183.
    [Abstract](3664) [HTML](0) [PDF 813.94 K](2120) [Cited by](71)
    Abstract:
    This paper reports the results of experiments on the toxicity of alkaline to fishesin 1980--1981. The effects of different composition of alkaline as well as their internalrelationship in causing toxicities are discussed.It is noticed that alkaline (A) and pH are interdependent in producing the toxica-tion on fishes. The relationship of the 24h TLm is pH = (10.00+0.038)-(0.0149+0.007) A(n = 25,r= -0.976, s=0.101). Under the experimental condition, CO3- 24hTLm to silver carp(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is 12.4me/L. Besides CO3-,the majormortality factor, OH-, CO2- and salinity also participate in synergism on different pHintervals. Therefore, alkalinity 10me/L may be taken as the danger index for waterquality in culturing silver carp and bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis).
    9  The effects of starvation on growth and biochemical composition in Pagrosomus major
    ZHANG Bo
    2000, 24(3).
    [Abstract](3155) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](1815) [Cited by](69)
    Abstract:
    The recovery growth experiment in red sea bream, Pagrosomus major , following dif ferent starvation time at 20 .. .During starvation of 15 days, the f ish lost 7. 05% body weight comparing with it s initial weight s; the water content within the f ish body increased slightly; the protein and the energy content decreased slightly too; the lipid and ash did not significantly change. The tested fish were divided into 6 experiment groups which were deprived of food for 0( control) , 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days respectively. Then each group was sated with food for two weeks. At the end of the recovery growth, chemical composition and energy content in each group were similar with the control group. The specif ic growth rate and feeding rate of groups which were deprived of food for 3 and 6 days significantly higher than the control group, but food conversion efficiency was similar w ith the control group; the specific growth rate and food conversion efficiency of groups which were deprived of food for 9, 12 and 15 days significantly higher than the control group, but feeding rate was similar to the control group. This results suggest the compensatory growth in red sea bream which was deprived of food for 6 days resulted in signif icant increase of the feeding rate in the recovery growth; but the compensatory growth in red sea bream which was deprived of food 9, 12 and 15 days resulted in signif icant increase of the food conversion efficiency in the recovery growth.
    10  The compensatory growth and its mechanismin of red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, after food deprivation
    JIANG Zhi qiang
    2002, 26(1).
    [Abstract](2970) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](1953) [Cited by](69)
    Abstract:
    Two studies were conducted to reveal the ability of compensatory growth after food deprivation and refeeding in two sizes of red drum , Sciaenops ocellatus , weighing 8. 25 ±0.50 g and 40.41 ±2.45 g in temperature of 18 -20 ℃and 20-24 ℃respectively. Within the 30 days of experiment , both of the two results showed that each group had difference in growth, but the difference was not significant. Compared with control group , the water content and ash increased , while the lipid decreased and the protein did not significantly change in starved groups. After the starved fish were refed, their biochemical composition could reach the level of control group. As the starvation prolongs, feeding quantity reduced,but feed conversion efficiency increased. Meanwhile the oxygen consumption rate decreased and this trend stopped when the fish were refed , then the oxygen consumption rate gradually increased to the level of the control group. The results suggest that the mechanism of compensatory growth in red drum be due to the low oxygen consumption rate and high digestion and absorption after starvation.
    11  STUDIES ON THE AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA SEPTICEMIA OF SOFT-SHELLED ( TRION YX SINENSIS)
    Lu Hongda
    1996, 20(3).
    [Abstract](2894) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](2867) [Cited by](66)
    Abstract:
    Acquired St ra ins, w hich wer e iso lated f rom naturally infected so f t-shelled turt les and identif ied by the bacter io logical metho d, w ere Aeromonas hydr op hila. D isease d sof t-shelled tur tles we re letharg ic and appe ared hyperaemia in neck, mouth, nose, the t ip of tongue, and ser ious hyperaemia, haemo rrhag e, ulcers, scar s in the abdomen. Mo uth and no se w ere running f luid w ith bloo d. Liver, kidney and spleen w ere oedema, with some necro t ic foci. Histopatholo gical changes: Many bacter ia invaded lung, kidney, spleen, blo od, heart and muscle, causing haemor rhage and extensive t issue damage, w here cells appear ed oedema, granular degenerat io n, hya line degener atio n and necroly sis. Blo od vessels wer e serio usly damaged, and their epithelial cells were necr osis and fel l aw ay. A large number of erythro cy tes in the bloo d v essels a nd t issues w ere deformed, bro ken and haemo lyzed, w hich led to haemo lyt ic a nemia. The number o f leuco cy tes decreased in the blo od, and ther e w as no inf lammator y r espo nse aro und the necro t ic fo ci. Ex tensive ly damaged blo od cel ls, hear t t issue a nd se riously ne cr ot ic lung a f fected oxy gen ex cha ng e, deseased so f t-shelled turt le s died due to dif f icult br eathing. Necro t ic Liv er, kidney and spleen lo st the ir funct io ns, w hich facilitate d the death o f diseased sof t-she lled turt les. Histopatho logical co urse show ed that the disease w as septicaemia. Thera py of ser iously diseased so f t-shelled turt les was tha t their external ulcer s w ere sw abbed w ith ..YU TAI-8" dr ug, and ..Z HI BIE LING-2" dr ug w as injected into their hind legs. Slight ly dise ased so f tshe lled tur t le s w ere fed by the foo d inco rpor ated w ith ..ZHI BIE LING-1 " drug . Meanw hile, w ater quality wa s impro ved. The to ta l cure r ate w as ov er 90%. Lastly , the comprehensive prevent ive measur es aga inst so f t-shelled tur tle disea se w ere mentio ned.
    12  THE EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON ACTIVITIES OF DIGESTIVE ENZYME IN THE LARVAE PENAEUS CHINENSIS
    PAN Lu Qing
    1997, 21(1).
    [Abstract](3386) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](2437) [Cited by](57)
    Abstract:
    Act ivit ies of several dig est ive enzymes f rom larval Penaeus chinese w ere analyzed w ith the enzyme analy tical method during its ontogenet ic development . The results show ed that there were 4 different pat terns in the act ivit ies of 5 digest ive enzymes from larval praw n. The act ivit ies of pepsin enzyme and t ry ptase increased along w ith the growth of larval praw n, w hile the act ivit ies of amylase decreased. T he activities of cellulase enzyme and lipase w ere fairly low . The act ivit ies of pepsin enzyme, t rytase and amylase changed obviously in feeding habit s transformat ion. T he act ivities of digest ive enzyme f rom larval praw n w ere af fected obviously by the different diets and ontogent ic development . T he authors suggested that the act ivit ies of dig est ive enzyme in the larval praw n w ere associated w ith its genet ic cont rol and liver different iat ion and adjust ing mechnism.
    13  Nutritional components and proteolysis of oyster meat
    WANG Heya
    2003, 27(2).
    [Abstract](2859) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](2886) [Cited by](53)
    Abstract:
    The nutritional components and proteolysis of oyster meat were investigated. The result s showed that the gross protein and glycogen in oyster meat were 50. 63% and 22. 41% respectively. The distribution of amino acids was perfect, and the total quantity of 8 essential amino acids accounted for 40 percent of total amino acids. The 537 acid protease was suitable for the proteolysis of oyster, and the optimal conditions were: E/ S= 1700U ..g - 1 protein, pH4, 50 .. and 2 hours. In the optimal condition , the yield of soluble protein and glycogen reached 78. 23% and 50. 58% based on that in raw material respectively, and the total free amino acids and taurin were 39. 27% and 12. 47% based on the total amino acids in the hydrolysate respectively.
    14  PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF TILAPIA NILOTICA
    Zhang Zhongying Hu Mei Wu Fuhuang
    1982, 6(4):369-378.
    [Abstract](3166) [HTML](0) [PDF 689.00 K](2150) [Cited by](51)
    Abstract:
    The oxygen consumption of different size Tilapia nilotica were measured andstudied under temperatures ranging from 21℃ to 26.5℃, within 24 hours in succession.The results are summarized as follows: At body weight 0.00306 kg, it is 250.76mg/kg/hr at temperaturo of 24℃; attwo-month old, body weight 0.04053 kg and 0.04289 kg, it is 136.58mg/kg/hr and154.48 mg/kg/hr respectively at 24℃; at three and half-month old, body weight0.07150 kg, it is 91.61 mg/kg/hr at 21℃; at fifteen-month old, body weight0.23300 kg and 0.43330kg, it is 67.90mg/kg/hr and 123.10mg/kg/hr respectivelyat 22.5℃ and 26.5℃; at twentyfour-month old, body weight 0.47200 kg and0.56830kg, it is 88.58mg/kg/hr and 111.58 mg/kg/hr at 22.5℃ and 26.5℃respectively. The experiments show that oxygen consumption of T. nilotica decreases as the ageor the body weight increases. This indicates that the younger fish require higheroxygen consumption than do the older ones, and the rate of oxygen consumption ofthe fish increases as the water temperature rises. The rates of oxygen consumption between the male and the female T. nilotica areshows no significant difference at the same size and same water temperature. The fish can survive in very low oxygen content waters, and its the asphyxiatingpoint is 0.07-0.23 mg/l.
    15  Progress on researches of cellular and humoral defense mechanisms in molluscs
    ZHOU Yong-Can
    1997, 21(4).
    [Abstract](4304) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](8358) [Cited by](51)
    Abstract:
    16  RECENT ADVANCES OF NON..SPECIFIC IMMUNITY IN FISH
    NIE Pin
    1997, 21(1).
    [Abstract](3004) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](2569) [Cited by](49)
    Abstract:
    17  EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS BUDGETS OF SHRIMP CULTURE POND
    QI Zhen Xiong
    1998, 22(2).
    [Abstract](2711) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](1720) [Cited by](48)
    Abstract:
    Nit ro gen a nd phosphorus budget s of shr imp culture pond wer e studied in six enclo sures stocked w ith Penaeus chinensis a t three lev els, i. e, 52 000 ind. / hm2, 60 000 ind. / hm 2 and 75 200 ind. / hm 2 , respect ively. The main results w ere as fo llow s: The largest per centages of N a nd P input w ere feed and fert ilizer, 49. 7% ~ 54. 5% and 47. 5% ~ 50. 1% for N, 30. 0%~ 34. 7% and 65. 1%~ 69. 9% fo r P. Among the items of N and P outputs, the shr imp ha rvest compr ising 9. 06%~ 11. 05% o f total N input and 3. 02% ~ 3. 94% of to ta l P inputs. Uptake by muds r epr esented the majo r lo ss of N and P, comprising 19. 4% ~ 64. 6% of N input and 21. 7% ~ 95. 9% o f P input, w hile the loss thro ugh seepage only compr ising small percentage of the total input s of N and P, i. e, 5. 0% for N and 0. 5% f
    18  A PRELIMINARY MEASUREMENT ON SUFFQCATIUN POINT AND OXYGEN CONSUMPTION RATE OF PAGROSGMUS MAJGR
    Dong Cunyou Zhang Jinrong
    1992, 16(1):75-79.
    [Abstract](2881) [HTML](0) [PDF 384.78 K](1652) [Cited by](47)
    Abstract:
    真鲷(Pagrosomus major T and S)是广东及其他各省市沿海海水网箱养殖的主要鱼类之一。随着真鲷人工繁殖和苗种培育的成功,真鲷养殖业将会有一个更大的发展。夫于鱼类的窒息点与耗氧率的研究早有不少,但是对真鲷除个别学者提及其窒息点外,真正对其窒息点与耗氧率的系统研究尚未见到。为了绘其鲷的人工繁殖、苗种培育、运输和成鱼养殖提供呼吸生理方面的理论依据,笔者于1990年春对真鲷的窒息点和耗氧率进行了初步测定,就不同规格大小的苗种及备种外界条件与窒息点和耗氧率之间的关系进行了初步探讨。
    19  Effects of salinity on hatching rates and survival activity index of the larvae of Epinephelus akaara
    WANG Han-sheng
    2002, 26(4).
    [Abstract](3101) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](2213) [Cited by](47)
    Abstract:
    观察比较了10个盐度梯度(44.0、41.0、38.0、35.0、自然海水盐度30.5~32.5、27.0、24.0、21.0、18.0、15.0)下赤点石斑鱼受精卵的孵化率和畸形率.对12批初孵仔鱼进行耐饥饿试验,并测定其不投饵存活系数SAI值.结果表明,赤点石斑鱼受精卵孵化的适宜盐度为38.0~24.0,最适盐度为35.0~27.0.盐度高于35.0,孵化率随盐度的升高而降低,仔鱼畸形率则随之升高.盐度低于24.0,孵化率随盐度的降低而降低,仔鱼畸形率则随之升高.从盐度38.0到41.0以及24.0到21.0是2个对受精卵孵化率和仔鱼畸形率影响很大的盐度梯度.高于或低于这2个盐度梯度,孵化率即明显大幅度降低,畸形率则大幅度升高.赤点石斑鱼仔鱼的SAI值为3.19~12.42,低于长吻鲹和黄条(鱼师)的SAI值.仔鱼的SAI值与卵的受精率、孵化率呈正相关关系.只有SAI值大于5的仔鱼才有可能被进一步培育成苗,低于5的将在数天内死亡.
    20  Effects of anthracene on activity of superoxide dismutase in Sebastodes fuscescens
    TANG Xue xi
    2000, 24(3).
    [Abstract](2750) [HTML](0) [PDF 0.00 Byte](1656) [Cited by](46)
    Abstract:
    Effects of anthracene on activity of superoxide dismutase( SOD) in serum, liver, kidney , gill and muscle tissues of Sebastodes fuscescens were studied by toxic experimental methods. The results showed as follows: 1. SOD activities exhibited dif ferences among tested tissues, the order of SOD activity from high to low was liver > serum> kidney> gill> muscle. 2. The senstivity of SOD to anthracene also exhibited obvious differences among tested tissues, the most sensitive one to anthracene was serum SOD; the following were SOD of liver, gill and muscle tissues respectively ; the tolerance of kidney SOD to anthracene was the most strongest among them. 3. The changes of SOD act ivity under anthracene stress were different among tested tissuse, low levels of anthracene could stimulate SOD activity of gill, kidney and muscle t issues, while the SOD activity of serum and liver always showed inhibition from low to high anthracene concentrat ion.

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