Mollusc aquaculture contributes dominantly to the aquaculture industry in China, which plays an increasingly significant role in the development of economy, society and ecology, including promoting economic and social development, employment, as well as improving living standards of the people and protection of ecological environment. However, the outbreaks of mollusc diseases have resulted in substantial economic losses, which has seriously threatened the development of green and high-quality aquaculture industry. As molluscs lack adaptive immunity and are usually cultured in open or semi-open waters, it is difficult to prevent and control the diseases through environmental management or vaccine injection. The development of “green prevention” strategy and disease warning system is vital for the sustainable aquaculture. This article summarizes the current status of mollusc aquaculture and disease occurrence, and proposes the strategies for disease prevention and control. This review will provide reference for improving the disease control capabilities of aquaculture, ensuring the supply of aquatic products, and promoting the development of high-quality aquaculture industry.