The processing and circulation of aquatic products is a key link in achieving high-quality development of fisheries, playing an important role in ensuring the high-quality and safe supply of aquatic products throughout the year, and promoting the implementation of the national "Food Safety Strategy" and "Healthy China Strategy". After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the technology of aquatic product processing and circulation continued to progress, and the industry developed rapidly through independent innovation, technology introduction, digestion, and absorption. The world's most complete aquatic processing system was formed, including frozen and refrigerated aquatic products, fish mince products, leisure food, dried products, canned food, seaweed food, aquatic feed, and biological product processing, as well as a rapidly developing aquatic product circulation system with wholesale markets as the main body and e-commerce as new logistics model. This article analyzes the role of aquatic products in providing essential nutrients such as high-quality protein and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, balancing the dietary structure of residents and reducing the production pressure of terrestrial animal foods; it also systematically summarizes the current situation, existing problems, and development direction of China's aquatic product processing and circulation industry technology development. New measures have been proposed to ensure the high-quality development of China's aquatic product processing and circulation industry, such as “building a consumption guided processing, processing led aquaculture modern fishery industry system, ensuring food safety”, “ building a tiered processing and utilization technology system for aquatic products, ensuring the safe and high-quality supply of aquatic products”, “building a precise processing technology system for the functional components of aquatic products, and promoting the implementation of the healthy China strategy”.