Ensuring national food security and practicing the Integrated Food Security Thought are of extreme significance. The freshwater aquaculture industry plays an irreplaceable role in optimizing the dietary structure of Chinese residents and improving human nutritional and health levels. In order to clarify the problems in the development of freshwater aquaculture and explore strategies for the high-quality development of China's freshwater aquaculture industry, this paper summarizes the breeding methods and types of freshwater aquaculture in the 2013-2022 "China Fisheries Statistical Yearbook", and analyzes pond aquaculture, large surface ecological aquaculture, and rice fishing comprehensive breeding The development trend of China's freshwater aquaculture industry, represented by five main aquaculture models, including modern environmental protection facilities, fisheries, and saline alkali water aquaculture, was analyzed, and the challenges faced by the high-quality development of China's freshwater aquaculture industry were summarized. On this basis, from five aspects: expansion of aquaculture space, modernization of aquaculture, self-sufficiency of aquatic species, disease prevention and control, and product processing and transformation, exploratory directions for the high-quality development of China's freshwater aquaculture industry are proposed. Furthermore, measures to ensure the high-quality development of China's freshwater aquaculture industry are proposed from five dimensions: national policies, technological progress, talent team, technology promotion, and financial funds. This paper may provide reference for the transformation of the structure of China's freshwater aquaculture industry and the realization of green, healthy, and high-quality development.