崂山实验室科技创新项目 (LSKJ202203803)；中国工程院战略研究与咨询项目（2023-XBZD-09）；国家自然科学基金 (42176151)；山东省泰山学者专项；黄渤海渔业资源与生态创新团队 (2020TD01)
The inshore waters are the major spawning, nursery and feeding grounds of many fishery species, as well as the important fishing grounds, indicating that they are integral for the recruitment of fish stock and sustainable yield in sea granary of China. The inshore fisheries constitute 80%-90% of marine fisheries catches, playing an indispensable role in securing seafood supply, augmenting fishermen’s income and bolstering the marine economy of coastal regions. Since the founding of China, focusing on the key scientific and technological issues on the sustainable utilization of marine living resources, Chinese scientists have carried out a series of research on fishery resources, including fisheries resources surveys and stock assessment, basic research and applied basic research, development of technologies and so on, and gained a series of innovative achievements. The emphasis on fisheries resources research correlates closely with fisheries resources exploitation and fishery industry development. Aligning with the national fishery developmental strategies across different epochs, this paper systematically retraces the four developmental phases of inshore fisheries resources research since the 1950s: the nascent-development phase, the rapid growth phase, the integrated research phase and the new developmental phase. We delineate their distinct characteristics, primary research focus, and advancements in survey equipment and platform construction. Moreover, the paper collates China's progress and seminal findings in areas such as dynamics of fish populations, fishing ground exploration, efficient utilization of fisheries resources, technological development for fisheries resources survey and stock assessment, establishment of scientifically regulated aquatic conservation systems and dynamics of marine ecosystem. These findings greatly contributed to Chinese inshore fishery industry development, as well as the regulations and policies adjustment of fisheries management and conservation. The paper accentuates the future research imperative of embracing multidisciplinary studies and comprehensive surveys. It calls for a profound understanding of the mechanisms and processes governing fishery ecosystem structures and functions, and advocates the integration of economic and social dimensions in devising innovative resource utilization and management strategies. This holistic approach, epitomized by “protecting during development and developing during protection”, aims to bolster the implementation of conservation-oriented inshore fishery industry and champion the high-quality growth of the fishery sector in China.