海洋微塑料污染是全球性的环境问题，南极周边海域的微塑料污染问题是其中不可或缺的一环。目前关于南极微塑料的研究多集中于南极附近海水与企鹅粪便等，对南极海域鱼类体内微塑料研究较少。由于侧纹南极鱼是栖息于南极陆架海域数量最多的中上层鱼类，其在南极海洋生态系统中发挥着承上启下的作用，实验以南极南设得兰群岛周边海域侧纹南极鱼为对象，探究其体内微塑料污染情况对于养护该资源有着重要的意义。将南极带回的样品解冻并记录好生物学信息后，将其胃肠道部分取出。在60 ℃条件下，使用10% KOH在恒温摇床消解24 h以上，待溶液基本澄清后利用0.45 μm的滤膜过滤。抽滤后置于体式显微镜下，挑出疑似微塑料，再使用傅里叶红外光谱仪定性检测，最后利用扫描电子显微镜拍摄微塑料的微观形貌。结果显示，南设得兰群岛附近水域侧纹南极鱼体内微塑料平均丰度为(0.36±0.51)个/尾。侧纹南极鱼胃肠含物中微塑料丰度与鱼类体长之间存在正相关。整体上，南设得兰群岛北侧侧纹南极鱼胃肠含物中微塑料出现的概率略高于布兰斯菲尔德海峡南侧，但整体上处于低污染水平。侧纹南极鱼体内微塑料类型分为纤维状和碎片状，以纤维状为主。微塑料颜色以蓝色为主，其次是黑色，红色与透明色数量较少。微塑料的平均粒径为(584.6±419.2) μm，其中84.6%的微塑料粒径小于1 000 μm。聚酯类微塑料占比接近80%，是侧纹南极鱼微塑料的主要成分，其中绝大多数为聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET)。渔船渔网和船员生活污水排放可能是其存在的主要来源。通过电镜分析微塑料表面特征，发现碎片类微塑料断裂处较为粗糙，其比表面积显著增加；两种纤维类微塑料电镜照片说明了微塑料在生物体内的变化。由于较大的表面积会导致其易与其他污染物结合，携带有毒有害物质进入生态系统，进而通过食物链进入人类生活中，因此仍需重视微塑料污染带来的生态效应。研究结果丰富了南极海洋生物微塑料研究的基础数据，可作为本底资料，为进一步研究南极生态系统微塑料提供科学依据。
Microplastic pollution in the ocean is a global environmental problem, and the microplastic pollution in the waters around Antarctica is a crucial part of it. However, there are few studies on microplastics in the Antarctic, most of which focus on the seawater and penguin excrement near the Antarctic. Studies on microplastics in the Antarctic fish are few, especially in Pleuragramma antarcticum. P. antarcticum is the most abundant pelagic fish living in the Antarctic continental shelf waters and plays a role of linkage in the Antarctic Marine ecosystem, so it is necessary for conserving this resource to explore microplastic pollution in P. antarcticum in the waters around South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. After thawing the samples from Antarctica and recording biological information, the gastrointestinal tract was extracted. At 60 ℃, 10% KOH was used for digestion in a constant temperature shaker for more than 24 hours. After the solution was basically clarified, a 0.45 μm filter membrane was used for filtration. Suspected microplastics were picked out after filtration under a stereomicroscope, and then qualitatively detected by Fourier infrared spectrometer. Finally, the microplastic morphology was photographed by a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The results showed that the average abundance of microplastics in P. antarcticum was (0.36±0.51) item/individual in the waters near South Shetland Islands. There was a positive correlation between the abundance of microplastics in the gastrointestinal contents and the body length of the fish. In general, the occurrence of microplastics in P. antarcticum was slightly higher in the northern Southern Shetland Islands than in the southern Bransfield Strait, but the overall pollution levels were relatively low. The microplastics in the P. antarcticum could be divided into fibrous and fragmentary types, and most of them were fibrous. The color of microplastics was mainly blue, followed by black, and red and transparent colors were less common. The average particle size of microplastics was (584.6±419.2) μm, 84.6% of which was less than 1 000 μm. Polyester microplastics accounted for nearly 80% of the microplastics in the P. antarcticum, most of which were polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Fishing nets and discharge of sewage from crew might be its main source. The surface characteristics of microplastics were analyzed by SEM which indicated that the fracture area of microplastics was rough and the specific surface area increased significantly. The SEM images of two kinds of fibrous microplastics illustrated the changes of microplastics in organisms. Due to the large specific surface area, it was easy to combine with other pollutants, carry toxic and harmful substances into the ecosystem, and then enter human life through the food chain. Therefore, it is still necessary to pay attention to the ecological effects caused by microplastics pollution. The results of this study enrich the basic data of microplastics research in Antarctic marine life and could be used as background data to provide a scientific basis for further research on microplastics in the Antarctic ecosystem.