四种糖作为碳源对凡纳滨对虾生长、肠道消化酶及肠道菌群的影响
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S963.16

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海洋多肽及海洋生物酶在对虾健康养殖产业化示范项目(1419005)


Effects of four sugars as carbon sources on intestinal digestive enzymes and intestinal flora of Litopenaeus vannamei
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    摘要:

    为研究4种常见的糖源对凡纳滨对虾生长、肠道消化酶及肠道菌群的影响,选取初始体质量为(0.36±0.02) g的凡纳滨对虾为研究对象,从多种糖类中选择常见的4种糖(葡萄糖、果糖、淀粉、蔗糖)作为糖源配制饲料,实验共计4个处理,每个处理3个重复,每个重复40尾虾,养殖周期为56 d,每种糖源的添加量为20%。结果显示,①凡纳滨对虾的特定生长率和蛋白质效率均存在显著性差异,淀粉组显著高于其他3组,但各组间的肝体比和含肉率无显著差异。全虾体成分,蔗糖组的粗脂肪显著低于其他3组,葡萄糖组的灰分显著高于其他3组,粗蛋白与水分各组间无显著差异。②各组间对虾肠道的脂肪酶活性,淀粉组与蔗糖组显著高于葡萄糖组及果糖组,胃蛋白酶活性方面,淀粉组显著高于其他3组。③各组间凡纳滨对虾肠道的OTU、Ace指数及Chao指数无显著差异,Shannon指数淀粉组及蔗糖组显著高于葡萄糖组,Simpson指数淀粉组显著低于蔗糖组,而蔗糖组又显著低于葡萄糖组。门水平上,变形菌门(Proteobacteria)、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)与放线菌门(Actinobacteria)的相对丰度差异显著,但疣微菌门(Verrucomicrobia)相对丰度各组间无明显差异;在纲水平上,各处理组间的对虾肠道菌群的差异性较显著,淀粉组对虾肠道中黄杆菌纲(Flavobacteriia)、γ变形菌纲(Gammaproteobacteria)、放线菌纲(Actinobacteria)及噬纤维菌纲(Cytophagia)是明显高于蔗糖组与葡萄糖组。研究表明,凡纳滨对虾对淀粉和蔗糖的吸收利用优于葡萄糖和果糖,同时,淀粉和蔗糖对凡纳滨对虾肠道菌群多样性存在一定的影响,淀粉和蔗糖为凡纳滨对虾饲料中的适宜糖源。

    Abstract:

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of four common sugar sources on the growth, digestive enzymes and intestinal flora of Litopenaeus vannamei. The selected initial weight of L.vannamei was (0.36±0.02)g. Four kinds of common sugars (glucose, fructose, starch and sucrose) were selected from a variety of sugars as the sugar source to prepare the feed. Four treatments were carried out in total, three replicates for each treatment, 40 prawns for each replicate. The breeding period was 56 days, and the added amount of each sugar source was 20%. The test results show that, ① The specific growth rate and protein efficiency of L.vannamei were significantly different, the starch group was significantly higher than the other three groups, but there was no significant difference in the liver body ratio and the meat content rate between the groups. The whole body nutrition of shrimp, the crude fat of sucrose group was significantly lower than the other three groups, the ash of glucose group was significantly higher than the other three groups, and there was no significant difference between crude protein and moisture. ② There were significant differences in digestive enzyme activities among different groups of L.vannamei, the activity of lipase in starch group and sucrose group was significantly higher than that in glucose group and fructose group. There was no significant difference between starch group and sucrose group, while the activity of pepsin in starch group was significantly higher than that in other three groups. ③ There was no significant difference in OTU, Ace and Chao indexes among the groups; Shannon index in starch group and sucrose group were significantly higher than glucose group; Simpson index starch group was significantly lower than sucrose group, and sucrose group was significantly lower than glucose group. At the level of phylum, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in sucrose group was significantly higher than that in glucose group, while that in Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria in starch group was significantly higher than that in glucose group, but there was no significant difference between the groups. At the class level, there was significant difference in the intestinal microflora of L. vannamei between the treatment groups. The Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cytophagia in the intestinal tract of L. vannamei in starch group were significantly higher than those in sucrose group and glucose group.In summary, the absorption and utilization of starch and sucrose by L.vannamei is better than that of glucose and fructose. Meanwhile, starch and sucrose have certain influence on the diversity of intestinal flora of L.vannamei. Starch and sucrose are the suitable sugar sources in L.vannamei feed.

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荆冰妍,杨超,郭冉,朱昱铮,李雪鹤,张宇,王晓明,梁倍宁,高佳朋.四种糖作为碳源对凡纳滨对虾生长、肠道消化酶及肠道菌群的影响[J].水产学报,2021,45(6):920~928

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  • 收稿日期:2020-07-14
  • 最后修改日期:2020-11-26
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-06-16
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