四种微藻投喂对三角帆蚌生长、产珠性能、内壳层颜色和微量元素的影响
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S968.3

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国家海洋公益项目(201305022);浙江省重大专项(2019C02055)


Effects of four microalgae diets on growth, nutritional composition, pearl producing function, shell nacre color and trace element content of Hyriopsis cumingii
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    摘要:

    为筛选三角帆蚌集约化养殖优质的饵料微藻,本实验采用单因子实验方法,探究投喂不同藻(小环藻、小球藻、二形栅藻、旋转单针藻和混合藻)对三角帆蚌生长、产珠性能和内壳珍珠层颜色的影响。结果显示,投喂不同藻对三角帆蚌的生长影响显著,投喂小环藻组三角帆蚌的体质量增重率、壳长、壳宽和壳高增长率最佳。二形栅藻组次之,但壳长增长率略高于小环藻组。小球藻组、旋转单针藻组和混合藻组生长较差。珍珠增重率以小环藻组最佳,显著高于其他4组。小环藻和二形栅藻组珍珠正圆率显著高于旋转单针藻组。不同饵料微藻对斧足和外套膜微量元素含量影响显著,投喂小环藻组斧足中Ca元素含量最高(12 637.30±624.39) mg/kg。不同饵料微藻对内壳色影响显著,小环藻组内壳色亮度最低、色差最小、饱和度较大;混合藻组内壳色亮度最高、色差最大、饱和度最小;二形栅藻组各值处于中间水平。综合考虑,小环藻是三角帆蚌最佳的饵料微藻,二形栅藻次之。

    Abstract:

    China accounts for more than 95% of global freshwater pearl production, of which 80% is Hyriopsis cumingii. In high-density H. cumingii culture, large amounts of organic manure (duck manure, bird manure, soybean milk) and chemical fertilizers are used to produce sufficient quantities of feed. This method results in a large amount of feces, pseudo feces, and residual feed being discharged, causing eutrophication and negative effects on the benthic environment. Water pollution can result in frequent disease outbreaks and disease control drugs can further pollute the aquatic environment. Development of intelligent culture facilities, including high-quality nutritious diets for H. cumingii, is an urgent need. To dertimine the optimal microalgae diet for massive mussel culture, this experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different microalgae diets (Cyclotella sp., Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus dimorphus, Monosporidium contortum, and mixed four microalgae) on the growth, pearl producing function, nutrition composition and shell nacre color of H. cumingii, using a single factor experiment method. The results showed that the growth of the mussel was significantly different with different microalgae diets. The mussels fed Cyclotella sp. and S. dimorphus showed weight growth (WG) of 9.94% ± 0.51% and 9.42% ± 0.89%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of the other three groups; mussels fed M. contortum had the lowest WG 5.23% ± 0.30%. Similar results were obtained for shell length growth (SLG), with mussels fed Cyclotella sp. and S. dimorphus showing the highest values 1.99% ± 0.31% and 2.07% ± 0.53%, respectively. The group fed Cyclotella sp. showed the highest shell height growth (SHG) 6.55% ± 0.62%. The highest shell width growth (SWG) was also observed in the group fed Cyclotella sp. (5.31% ± 0.71%) while the group fed M. contortum group showed the lowest SWG (3.33% ± 0.91%); there was a significant difference between these two groups. Pearl weight growth (PWG) also differed significantly among the different treatment groups. The highest PWG was observed in mussels fed Cyclotella sp. (16.23% ± 1.23%). There were no significant differences among the groups fed C. pyrenoidosa (11.40% ± 2.09%), S. dimorphus (13.40% ± 2.00%), and mixed microalgae (11.80% ± 1.40%); the lowest PWG was observed in the group fed M. contortum (6.35% ± 1.90%). In summary, Cyclotella sp. and S. dimorphus were the optimal species for H. cumingii growth. Feeding different microalgae did not have a significant effect on the shape of the pearls (probability of producing round and near-round pearls), but did have a significant effect on the probability of producing round and oval pearls. The probability of a pearl shape being round was the highest in both the Cyclotella sp. and S. dimorphus groups (26.67% ± 4.71%) and was significantly higher than that in the M. contortum group. However, the S. dimorphus groups was significantly more likely to have oval round shape (16.67% ± 4.71%) than the other four groups. Different microalgae had significant effects on shell nacre color. The L* values for the Cyclotella sp. (64.89±1.97) and C. pyrenoidosa (65.18±2.24) groups were lower and significantly lower than the other three groups. And with the highest L* value in the mixed algae group (68.94±1.71), which was significantly higher than the other four groups. The mixed algae group had the highest dE* value (69.08±1.68), which was significantly higher than the other four groups. The smallest dE* value was found in the Cyclotella sp. group (65.23±1.89), which was not significantly different from the C. pyrenoidosa group (65.47±2.19). There was no difference between the S. dimorphus group (67.32±2.88) and the M. contortum group (67.52±2.46), but significantly higher than the Cyclotella sp. and C. pyrenoidosa groups. The largest C* value was found in the C. pyrenoidosa group (6.03±0.98), which was slightly higher than that in the Cyclotella sp. group (5.44±1.36) and significantly higher than those in the S. dimorphu, M. contortum and mixed groups. The trace element content of the mantle was significantly affected by diet. The highest Zn content was observed in mussels fed M. contortum [(170.33 ±3.86) mg/kg], followed by S. dimorphus, and Cyclotella sp. [(120.33 ± 2.05) and (122.33 ± 4.99) mg/kg]. The mixed algae group had the lowest Fe content (169.33± 22.13) mg/kg, and the others had no significant difference. The content of Mg and Mn had same trend, M. contortum > S. dimorphus > Cyclotella sp.= C. pyrenoidosa > mixed algae. The Ca content of the foot was the highest [(12 637.30 ± 624.39) mg/kg] for group fed Cyclotella sp., followed by the group fed M. contortum [(8 019.00 ± 513.72) mg/kg]. The Ca content of the foot for these two groups was significantly higher than those of the other groups. The highest Ca content in the mantle was observed in the mussels fed S. dimorphus (25 049.30 ± 1 320.36) mg/kg, followed by the group fed M. contortum (24 903.70 ± 359.06) mg/kg. The groups fed Cyclotella sp., C. pyrenoidosa, and mixed algae showed significantly lower Ca content in the mantle. In conclusion, Cyclotella sp. may be the best diet choice for intensive H. cumingii, and followed by S. dimorphus.

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陈锵,蒋霞敏,彭瑞冰,韩庆喜,生鹏,薛瑞萍.四种微藻投喂对三角帆蚌生长、产珠性能、内壳层颜色和微量元素的影响[J].水产学报,2021,45(6):899~909

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  • 收稿日期:2019-12-25
  • 最后修改日期:2020-09-10
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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-06-16
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