高植物蛋白饲料中添加蛋白酶对克氏原螯虾生长、免疫力及消化力的影响
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湖北省技术创新专项重大项目(2019ABA077);四川省重点研发项目(2018NZ0152);通威股份有限公司产学研合作项目(TW2018I001, 2011259);湿地生态与农业利用教育部工程研究中心开放课题(KFT202003;KFT202102);湖北省教育厅百校联百县项目(BXLBX0312)


Effects of dietary protease supplementation in high-plant-protein diets on the growth, immunity and digestion of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)
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    摘要:

    为探讨低鱼粉高植物蛋白饲料中蛋白酶的适宜添加范围,在克氏原螯虾基础饲料中分别添加0、0.1、0.2、0.4、0.8、1.6 g/kg蛋白酶,制作成6组饲料。选择初始体质量为(8.18±0.11) g的克氏原螯虾,随机分为6组,每组3个重复,每个重复15尾虾,在室内养殖桶中饲养8周。结果显示,随饲料蛋白酶添加量的增加:①各组间存活率、肝体比、腹部含肉率均无显著差异;增重率和特定生长率均先升高后降低,且在蛋白酶添加量为0.2 g/kg时达到最大值。当蛋白酶添加量为0.4 g/kg时饲料系数最低;蛋白质效率和蛋白质沉积率分别在添加量为0.4和0.2 g/kg时达到最高值。经折线回归分析,增重率、饲料系数、蛋白质效率分别在蛋白酶添加量为0.16、0.24、0.23 g/kg时有最佳值。②腹部肌肉和全虾粗蛋白质含量先升高后降低最终趋于平稳,均在0.2 g/kg组有最大值。③肠道及肝胰腺蛋白酶、脂肪酶、淀粉酶活性均先增加后缓慢降低,均在0.2 g/kg组出现最大值,且显著高于对照组。④血清总蛋白含量在0.4 g/kg组出现最大值;谷草转氨酶及谷丙转氨酶活性先降低后增加,均在0.4 g/kg时出现最小值;碱性磷酸酶和酸性磷酸酶活性则先增加后降低,分别在0.2和0.4 g/kg时达到最大值;当蛋白酶添加量为0.2 g/kg时,丙二醛含量有最小值。⑤肝胰腺碱性磷酸酶和酸性磷酸酶活性先增加后降低,当蛋白酶添加量为0.2 g/kg时有最大值,且显著高于对照组。研究表明,本实验条件下克氏原螯虾饲料蛋白酶添加量为0.16~0.40 g/kg时,可提高其对植物蛋白的利用率。

    Abstract:

    To investigate the optimal supplementation of dietary exogenous protease in plant-based diets of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii), crayfish [initial mean weight (9.25±0.20) g ]were fed six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets which were formulated to contain graded protease levels (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg protease, respectively) for 8 weeks. Each diet was fed to triplicate tanks with 15 per crayfish in each tank. The results showed that, with the increase of dietary protease supplementation: ① There were no significant difference in survival rate, hepatosomatic index and flesh content among groups. The weight gain rate firstly increased and then decreased, and reached the maximum when dietary protease supplementation level was 0.2 g/kg. The feed conversation ratio reached the lowest value when dietary protease supplementation level was 0.4 g/kg. The protein efficiency and protein deposition rate reached the highest in shrimp fed the diet with 0.4 and 0.2 g/kg protease, respectively. Broken-line model analysis in terms of the weight gain rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency indicated that optimal dietary protease supplement of crayfish was 0.16, 0.24 and 0.23 g/kg, respectively.② The crude protein contents in muscle and whole shrimp firstly increased and then decreased, and the maximum occured at the shrimp fed the diet with 0.2 g/kg protease. ③ The activities of protease, lipase and amylase in intestine and hepatopancreas all reached the maximum at the shrimp fed the diet with 0.2 g/kg protease, which was significantly higher than the control shrimp. ④ The maximum content of total protein in serum were observed in shrimps fed the diets with 0.4 g/kg protease; the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase firstly decreased and then increased, with the lowest value occurs at the shrimp fed the diet with 0.4 g/kg protease; the activities of alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase firstly increased and then decreased, and reached the maximum in 0.2 g/kg group and 0.4 g/kg group, respectively. The content of malondialdehyde had the minimum value at the shrimp fed the diet with 0.2 g/kg protease. ⑤ The activities of alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase in hepatopancreas firstly increased and then decreased, and reached the maximum at the shrimp fed the diet with 0.2 g/kg protease, which was significantly higher than the control shrimp. In conclusion, under this experimental condition, the appropriate supplementation of dietary protease in red swamp crayfish is from 0.16 to 0.40 g/kg.

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YANG Wenxiu, CHEN Xiaoru, WEN Hua, WU Fan, HU Wei, GAO Weihua, TIAN Juan, YUAN Hanwen, XU Shude. Effects of dietary protease supplementation in high-plant-protein diets on the growth, immunity and digestion of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)[J]. Journal of Fisheries of China,2022,46(6):1053~1062

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  • 收稿日期:2021-07-03
  • 最后修改日期:2021-09-14
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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-06-18
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