马鞍列岛东部海域小黄鱼时空分布特征
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S 931

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国家重点研发计划 (2018YFD0900905,2019YFD0901303);上海海洋大学科技发展专项基金 (A2-2006-20-200212)


Spatial and temporal distribution of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in Eastern Ma'an Archipelago
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    摘要:

    鱼类在不同生活史阶段往往表现出不同的生境偏好,对这种规律的全面认知是进行资源保护、海洋牧场增殖目标种选择以及增殖技术研发的前提。实验基于2016年夏季 (8月)、秋季 (12月)和2017年冬季 (3月)、春季 (5月)在马鞍列岛东部海域19个站点的底拖网调查数据,应用资源密度、相对重要性指数以及GIS空间分析方法,对3496 种小黄鱼样品年龄、性别、性成熟度和饵料组成等生物学参数及其时空分布进行了统计分析,并结合回归分析探讨了小黄鱼生物学指标与环境因子之间的关系。结果显示,研究海域小黄鱼种群存在较强的季节变动和空间差异:平均资源密度夏季最高,冬季最低;夏季资源密度岛礁内水域远高于岛礁外围。年龄结构上除了夏季以幼鱼为主 (75.7%)外,其他季节皆以1龄鱼为主。岛礁内部水域夏季小黄鱼饵料生物丰富度显著高于岛礁外,春秋季相反。与环境因子的回归分析结果显示,岛礁外最显著的影响因子为浮游植物丰度,该值越高则小黄鱼资源密度越高,但岛礁内部分布上并未显示出与任一环境因子的显著相关性。研究表明,岛礁繁多且规模化人工生境的存在使马鞍列岛东部海域成为小黄鱼优良的索饵避敌与栖息繁殖场所。除了饵料因素外,岛礁内的小黄鱼并未对具体的环境因子产生明显趋向性,但对岛礁内各环境要素构成的生境却显示出一定的偏好。

    Abstract:

    Fish tends to use different habitats in different life cycle stages. A comprehensive understanding of habitat selection strategy by fish plays key roles in polulation protection, utilization, target species selection as well as on stock enhancement in marine ranching programs. Based on the bottom trawl survey in summer (August, 2016), autumn(December, 2016), winter (March, 2017) and spring (May, 2017) in Eastern Ma’an Archipelago, we examined 3496 Larimichthys polyactis individuals collected from 19 sites. Biological characteristics of small yellow croaker, including age structure, sex ratio, sexual maturity and the food composition were statistically analyzed using indices such as resource density, relative importance index and GIS spatial analysis. Regression analysis was performed to reveal the relationship between the biological parameters and environmental factors. Our results showed that the population of small yellow croaker in the Eastern Ma’an Archipelago expressed a strong seasonal variation and spatial difference:the population density of small yellow croaker was the highest in summer. There was a higher population density in the areas adjacent to islands than that in the areas off islands. In terms of age structure, 1-year-old small yellow croaker dominanted allmost all seasons except for summer, when 0-year-old small yellow croaker accounted for 75. 7% of the toal. Contrary to spring and autumn, the preys richness for small yellow croaker in areas adjacent to islands was significantly higher than that in areas off islands in summer. Regression analysis indicated that the primary productivity in the areas off islands was the most significant factor(p<0. 05). Correlation analysis revealed that higher abundance of phytoplankton contributed to higher population density of small yellow croaker. However no such significant correlation was tested in the areas adjacent to islands. The research revealed that in Eastern Ma’an Archipelago, large scale of reefs and artificial habitats, provide suitable habitats for small yellow croaker as feeding, breeding and sheltering ground. Small yellow croaker in the areas adjacent to islands didn’t show obvious preference for specific environmental factors except for the food factor, but showed a certain preference for the habitats constituted by various environmental factors in the areas adjacent to rocky islands.

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WANG Zhenhua, SHEN Hui, LIN Jun, ZHANG Shouyu, ZHONG Jiaming, CHEN Yifan, LIU Zhangbin. Spatial and temporal distribution of small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) in Eastern Ma'an Archipelago[J]. Journal of Fisheries of China,2022,46(6):959~972

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  • 收稿日期:2020-09-28
  • 最后修改日期:2021-01-21
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  • 在线发布日期: 2022-06-18
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