滆湖鱼类群落时空分布及其与环境因子的关系
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S 932.4

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国家重点研发计划(2020YFD0900504,2019YFD0900605);江苏省水生生物资源重大专项(ZYHB16);江苏省渔业科技项目(Y2017-23)


Spatial and temporal distribution of fish assemblages and its relationship with environmental factors in Lake Gehu
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    摘要:

    为掌握滆湖鱼类群落现状及动态,于2017—2018年在该湖设置16个采样点,使用多网目刺网和地笼对鱼类群落进行了周年季度采样,同时测定各采样点的水温(WT)、水深(WD)、透明度(SD)、pH值、叶绿素a (Chl.a)、总氮(TN)和总磷(TP)等环境因子,定量分析了鱼类群落结构特征、时空分布格局及其与环境因子的关系。研究期间共采集鱼类36种,隶属4目8科。相对重要性指数(IRI)显示,刀鲚为优势种,鲢和鲫为常见种。在3种生态类群中,定居型鱼类物种数最多(83.3%);在5种功能摄食群中,杂食性鱼类物种数最多(47.2%),鱼类物种组成在月份间和空间上均无显著差异。双因素方差分析表明,单位努力捕获数量(NPUE)、丰富度指数(R)、Shannon多样性指数(H′)和Pielou均匀度指数(J)的季节性差异显著,但单位努力捕获重量(BPUE)在季节间无差异,以上5个参数中仅R存在显著的空间变化。冗余分析(RDA)结果表明水温和TP是影响鱼类物种时空分布的关键环境因子。研究表明,自20世纪50年代以来,滆湖鱼类多样性下降明显,物种组成和产量发生了明显变化,推测与水质污染导致的水草急剧退化、增殖放流、过度捕捞和江湖阻隔有关。

    Abstract:

    In order to understand the status and dynamics of fish community in Gehu Lake, the fishes at 16 stations in Lake Gehu were seasonally sampled using multi-mesh gillnets and traps from August, 2017 to May, 2018. Meanwhile, water temperature (WT), water depth (WD), transparency (SD), pH, chlorophyll a (Chl.a), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) were measured. Using these data, fish community structural characteristics, the spatial and temporal distribution pattern and its relationship with environmental factors were analyzed. A total of thirty-six fish species, belonging to 4 orders and 8 families, were collected from Lake Gehu. According to index of relative importance (IRI), Japanese grenadier anchovy (Coilia nasus) was the predominant species, silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were the common species. Sedentary fishes (83.3%) predominated in species number among the three ecological groups and omnivorous fishes (47.2%) prevailed among the five feeding functional groups. The fish species composition in Lake Gehu did not differ monthly and spatially. The Two-Way analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that number per catch effort (NPUE), richness index (R), Shannon-Wiener's diversity index (H′) and evenness index (J) significantly differed but biomass per catch effort (BPUE) did not differ monthly, and all the five structural features except R did not significantly differ between lake areas. Redundancy analysis revealed that WT and TP were the key factors influencing the spatial and temporal distribution of fish species of Lake Gehu. The results suggested that since 1950s the fish diversity has declined markedly and the species and product composition have changed greatly, which is speculated to be responsible for sharp degradation of macrophyte vegetation, overfishing, disconnection between lake and river, and breeding and enhancement.

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LI Jingwei, XU Dongpo, LI Wei, KONG Youjia, HUA Shaopeng, LIU Qigen, ZHANG Shun, HU Zhongjun. Spatial and temporal distribution of fish assemblages and its relationship with environmental factors in Lake Gehu[J]. Journal of Fisheries of China,2022,46(4):546~556

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  • 收稿日期:2020-08-02
  • 最后修改日期:2020-08-24
  • 录用日期:2020-08-29
  • 在线发布日期: 2022-04-15
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